Get Coursework Help In Your Essays, Assignments, Homeworks, Dissertation Or Thesis

Professional And Experienced Writers - 24/7 Online Support

On being a cripple questions on rhetoric and style answers

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 4 10/21/14 12:16 AM

Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States

Robert N. Lussier, Ph.D. Springfield College

Christopher F. Achua, D.B.A. University of Virginia’s College at Wise

S I X T H E D I T I O N

Leadership THEORY, APPLICATION,

& SKILL DEVELOPMENT

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 1 10/21/14 12:16 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 4 10/21/14 12:16 AM

This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for materials in your areas of interest.

Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the eBook version.

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

© 2016, 2013 Cengage Learning

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Library of Congress Control Number: 2014942594

Student Edition ISBN: 978-1-285-86635-2

Cengage Learning 20 Channel Center Street Boston, MA 02210 USA

Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with office locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, and Japan. Locate your local office at: www.cengage.com/global

Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd.

To learn more about Cengage Learning Solutions, visit www.cengage.com

Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store www.cengagebrain.com

Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development, 6e Robert N. Lussier, Christopher F. Achua

Vice President, General Manager, Social Science & Qualitative Business: Erin Joyner

Product Director: Michael Schenk

Senior Product Manager: Scott Person

Senior Content Developer: Julia Chase

Product Assistant: Brian Pierce

Marketing Director: Kristen Hurd

Market Manager: Emily Horowitz

Marketing Coordinator: Christopher Walz

Art and Cover Direction, Production Management, and Composition: Lumina Datamatics, Inc.

Senior Media Developer: Sally Nieman

Manufacturing Planner: Ron Montgomery

Cover Image: © Ascent Xmedia/Taxi/Getty Images

Intellectual Property

Analyst: Jennifer Nonenmacher

Project Manager: Sarah Shainwald

Printed in the United States of America Print Number: 01 Print Year: 2014

For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706

For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at cengage.com/permissions

Further permissions questions can be emailed to permissionrequest@cengage.com

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 2 10/24/14 12:40 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

WCN: 02-200-203

DEDICATION

To my wife Marie and our six children:

Jesse, Justin, Danielle, Nicole, Brian, and Renee

— Robert N. Lussier

To my family, especially my wife (Pauline),

the children (Justin, Brooke, Jordan, Cullen, Gregory and Zora)

and my mother (Theresia Sirri).

— Christopher F. Achua

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 3 10/21/14 12:16 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 4 10/21/14 12:16 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

v

Brief Contents Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xxv

About the Authors xxviii

PART ONE INDIVIDuALS AS LEADERS

1 Who Is a Leader and What Skills Do Leaders Need? 1

2 Leadership Traits and Ethics 31

3 Leadership Behavior and Motivation 68

4 Contingency Leadership Theories 108

5 Influencing: Power, Politics, Networking, and Negotiation 144

PART TWO TEAM LEADERSHIP

6 Communication, Coaching, and Conflict Skills 183

7 Leader–Member Exchange and Followership 230

8 Team Leadership and Self-Managed Teams 268

PART THREE ORgANIzATIONAL LEADERSHIP

9 Charismatic and Transfor mational Leadership 319

10 Leadership of Culture, Ethics, and Diversity 357

11 Strategic Leadership and Change Management 395

12 Crisis Leadership and the Learning Organization 428

Appendix: Leadership and Spirituality in the Workplace 464

Glossary 474

Index 481

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 5 10/21/14 12:16 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

vi

Contents Preface xiii Acknowledgments xxv About the Authors xxviii

PART ONE INDIVIDuALS AS LEADERS

CHAPTER 1 Who Is a Leader and What Skills Do Leaders Need? 1 Leadership Described 2

Leadership Development 2 / Defining Leadership with Five Key Elements 5

Leadership Skills 8 Are Leaders Born or Made? 8 / Can Leadership Be Taught and Skills Developed? 9 / Managerial Leadership Skills 9

Leadership Managerial Roles 11 Interpersonal Roles 11 / Informational Roles 12 / Decisional Roles 12

Levels of Analysis of Leadership Theory 14 Individual Level of Analysis 14 / group Level of Analysis 14 / Organizational Level of Analysis 14 / Interrelationships among the Levels of Analysis 15

Leadership Theory Paradigms 16 The Trait Theory Paradigm 16 / The Behavioral Leadership Theory Paradigm 16 / The Contingency Leadership Theory Paradigm 17 / The Integrative Leadership Theory Paradigm 17 / From the Management to the Leadership Theory Paradigm 17

Objectives of the Book 18 Leadership Theory 19 / Application of Leadership Theory 20 / Leadership Skill Development 20 / Flexibility 20

Organization of the Book 20

Chapter Summary 21 Key Terms 22 / Review Questions 22 / Critical-Thinking Questions 22 CASE: From Steve Jobs to Tim Cook—Apple 23 VIDEO CASE: Leadership at P. F. Chang’s 24 Developing Your Leadership Skills 1-1 24 Developing Your Leadership Skills 1-2 26

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 6 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

CONTENTS vii

CHAPTER 2 Leadership Traits and Ethics 31 Personality Traits and Leadership Trait universality 32

Personality and Traits 33 / Personality Profiles 34 / Leadership Trait universality 35

The Big Five Including Traits of Effective Leaders 36 Surgency 36 / Agreeableness 37 / Adjustment 37 / Conscientiousness 38 / Openness 38

The Personality Profile of Effective Leaders 41 Achievement Motivation Theory 41 / Leader Motive Profile Theory 43

Leadership Attitudes 45 Theory X and Theory Y 46 / The Pygmalion Effect 47 / Self-Concept 48 / How Attitudes Develop Leadership Styles 49

Ethical Leadership 50 Does Ethical Behavior Pay? 51 / Factors Influencing Ethical Behavior 52 / How People Justify unethical Behavior 54 / guides to Ethical Behavior 56

Chapter Summary 57 Key Terms 58 / Review Questions 58 / Critical-Thinking Questions 59 CASE: Blake Mycoskie and TOMS 59 VIDEO CASE: “P.F.” Chang’s Serves Its Workers Well 61 Developing Your Leadership Skills 2-1 61 Developing Your Leadership Skills 2-2 63 Developing Your Leadership Skills 2-3 63

CHAPTER 3 Leadership Behavior and Motivation 68 Leadership Behavior and Styles 69

Leadership Behavior 69 / Leadership Styles and the university of Iowa Research 70

university of Michigan and Ohio State university Studies 71 university of Michigan: Job-Centered and Employee-Centered Behavior 72 / Ohio State university: Initiating Structure and Consideration Behavior 74 / Differences, Contributions, and Applications of Leadership Models 75

The Leadership grid 75 Leadership grid Theory 76 / Leadership grid and High-High Leader Research 77 / Behavioral Theory Contributions and Applications 78

Leadership and Major Motivation Theories 79 Motivation and Leadership 79 / The Motivation Process 79 / An Overview of Three Major Classifications of Motivation Theories 80

Content Motivation Theories 80 Hierarchy of Needs Theory 80 / Two-Factor Theory 82 / Acquired Needs Theory 86 / Balancing Work–Life Needs 87

Process Motivation Theories 87 Equity Theory 87 / Expectancy Theory 88 / goal-Setting Theory 89 / using goal Setting to Motivate Employees 91

Reinforcement Theory 92 Types of Reinforcement 93 / Schedules of Reinforcement 94 / You get What You Reinforce 95 / Motivating with Reinforcement 96 / giving Praise 96

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 7 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

viii CONTENTS

Putting the Motivation Theories Together within the Motivation Process 99

Chapter Summary 100 Key Terms 100 / Review Questions 101 / Critical-Thinking Questions 101 CASE: Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg 102 VIDEO CASE: Motivation at Washburn guitars 103 Developing Your Leadership Skills 3-1 103 Behavior Model Skills Training 3-1 104 Behavior Model Video 3-1 104 Developing Your Leadership Skills 3-2 104

CHAPTER 4 Contingency Leadership Theories 108 Contingency Leadership Theories and Models 109

Leadership Theories versus Leadership Models 110 / Contingency Theory and Model Variables 110 / global Contingency Leadership 111

Contingency Leadership Theory and Model 112 Leadership Style and the LPC 113 / Situational Favorableness 114 / Determining the Appropriate Leadership Style 114 / Research, Criticism, and Applications 116

Leadership Continuum Theory and Model 117

Path–goal Leadership Theory and Model 119 Situational Factors 120 / Leadership Styles 121 / Research, Criticism, and Applications 122

Normative Leadership Theory and Models 123 Leadership Participation Styles 124 / Model Questions to Determine the Appropriate Leadership Style 124 / Selecting the Time-Driven or Development-Driven Model for the Situation 127 / Determining the Appropriate Leadership Style 127 / Research, Criticism, and Applications 127

Putting the Behavioral and Contingency Leadership Theories Together 128 Prescriptive and Descriptive Models 129

Leadership Substitutes Theory 131 Substitutes and Neutralizers 131 / Leadership Style 132 / Changing the Situation 132 / Research, Criticism, and Applications 132

Chapter Summary 133 Key Terms 134 / Review Questions 134 / Critical-Thinking Questions 134 CASE: Foxconn Technology group 135 VIDEO CASE: Leadership at McDonald’s 136 Developing Your Leadership Skills 4-1 139 Developing Your Leadership Skills 4-2 140

CHAPTER 5 Influencing: Power, Politics, Networking, and Negotiation 144 Power 145

Sources of Power 146 / Types of Power and Influencing Tactics, and Ways to Increase Your Power 146

Organizational Politics 153 The Nature of Organizational Politics 154 / Political Behavior 155 / guidelines for Developing Political Skills 156

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 8 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

CONTENTS ix

Networking 159 Perform a Self-Assessment and Set goals 160 / Create Your One-Minute Self-Sell 161 / Develop Your Network 162 / Conduct Networking Interviews 162 / Maintain Your Network 164 / Social Networking at Work 164

Negotiation 165 Negotiating 166 / The Negotiation Process 166

Ethics and Influencing 171

Chapter Summary 172 Key Terms 173 / Review Questions 173 / Critical-Thinking Questions 173 CASE: Organizational Power and Politics 174 VIDEO CASE: Employee Networks at Whirlpool Corporation 175 Developing Your Leadership Skills 5-1 176 Developing Your Leadership Skills 5-2 177 Developing Your Leadership Skills 5-3 178 Developing Your Leadership Skills 5-4 179

PART TWO TEAM LEADERSHIP

CHAPTER 6 Communication, Coaching, and Conflict Skills 183 Communication 184

Communication and Leadership 185 / Sending Messages and giving Instructions 185 / Receiving Messages 188

Feedback 191 The Importance of Feedback 191 / Common Approaches to getting Feedback on Messages—and Why They Don’t Work 192 / How to get Feedback on Messages 192

Coaching 194 How to give Coaching Feedback 194 / What Is Criticism—and Why Doesn’t It Work? 197 / The Coaching Model for Employees Who Are Performing Below Standard 198 / Mentoring 200

Managing Conflict 200 The Psychological Contract 201 / Conflict Management Styles 201

Collaborating Conflict Management Style Models 205 Initiating Conflict Resolution 206 / Responding to Conflict Resolution 207 / Mediating Conflict Resolution 207

Chapter Summary 210 Key Terms 210 / Review Questions 211 / Critical-Thinking Questions 211 CASE: Reed Hastings—Netflix 211 VIDEO CASE: Communication at Navistar International 213 Developing Your Leadership Skills 6-1 214 Behavior Model Skills Training 6-1 215 Behavior Model Video 6-1 221 Developing Your Leadership Skills 6-2 222 Behavior Model Skills Training 6-2 222 Behavior Model Video 6-2 223 Developing Your Leadership Skills 6-3 223 Developing Your Leadership Skills 6-4 224 Behavior Model Video 6-3 225 Developing Your Leadership Skills 6-5 225 Behavior Model Video 6-4 226

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 9 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

x CONTENTS

CHAPTER 7 Leader–Member Exchange and Followership 230 From Vertical Dyadic Linkage Theory to Leader–Member Exchange Theory 232

Vertical Dyadic Linkage Theory 232 / Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 234 / Factors That Influence LMX Relationships 235 / The Benefits of High-Quality LMX Relationships 237 / Criticisms of LMX Theory 238

Followership 239 Defining Followership 240 / Types of Followers 241 / Becoming an Effective Follower 242 / guidelines to Becoming an Effective Follower 244 / Factors That Can Enhance Follower Influence 246 / Dual Role of Being a Leader and a Follower 249

Delegation 249 Delegating 249 / Delegation Decisions 250 / Delegating with the use of a Model 252 / Evaluating Followers: guidelines for Success 254

Chapter Summary 255 Key Terms 256 / Review Questions 256 / Critical-Thinking Questions 257 CASE: W. L. gore & Associates 257 VIDEO CASE: Delegation at Boyne uSA Resorts 259 Developing Your Leadership Skills 7-1 260 Behavior Model Skills Training 260 The Delegation Model 260 Behavior Model Video 7.1 261 Developing Your Leadership Skills 7-2 261

CHAPTER 8 Team Leadership and Self-Managed Teams 268 The use of Teams in Organizations 270

Is It a group or a Team? 271 / Benefits and Limitations of Teamwork 272 / What Is an Effective Team? 275 / Characteristics of Highly Effective Teams 276 / Team Leadership 279 / Organizational Culture and Team Creativity 281

Types of Teams 283 Functional Team 283 / Cross-Functional Team 284 / Virtual Team 285 / Self-Managed Team (SMT) 285

Decision Making in Teams 286 Normative Leadership Model 286 / Team-Centered Decision-Making Model 287 / Advantages and Disadvantages of Team-Centered Decision Making 287

Conducting Effective Team Meetings 288 Planning Meetings 289 / Conducting Meetings 290 / Handling Problem Members 291

Self-Managed Teams 293 The Nature of Self-Managed Teams 294 / The Benefits of Self-Managed Teams 295 / Top Management and Self-Managed Team Success 297 / The Changing Role of Leadership in Self-Managed Teams 298 / The Challenges of Implementing Self-Managed Teams 299

Chapter Summary 300 Key Terms 301 / Review Questions 301 / Critical Thinking Questions 302 CASE: Frederick W. Smith—FedEx 302 VIDEO CASE: The NEADS Team: People and Dogs 304 Behavior Model Skills Training 8-1 304 Leadership Decision-Making Model 305 Behavior Model Video 8-1 and Video Exercise 307 Developing Your Leadership Skills 8-1 308 Developing Your Leadership Skills 8-2 310

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 10 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

CONTENTS xi

PART THREE ORgANIzATIONAL LEADERSHIP

CHAPTER 9 Charismatic and Transfor mational Leadership 319 Charismatic Leadership 321

Weber’s Conceptualization of Charisma 321 / Locus of Charismatic Leadership 322 / The Effects of Charismatic Leaders on Followers 323 / How One Acquires Charismatic Qualities 324 / Charisma: A Double-Edged Sword 326

Transformational Leadership 328 The Effects of Transformational Leadership 328 / Transformational versus Transactional Leadership 329 / The Transformation Process 331

Charismatic-Transformational Leadership 333 Qualities of Effective Charismatic and Transformational Leadership 333 / Charismatic and Transformational Leadership: What’s the Difference? 339

Stewardship and Servant Leadership 342 Stewardship and Attributes of the Effective Steward Leader 343 / Servant Leadership and Attributes of the Effective Servant Leader 344

Chapter Summary 346 Key Terms 348 / Review Questions 348 / Critical-Thinking Questions 348 CASE: ursula Burns: Xerox’s Chairwoman and CEO 349 VIDEO CASE: Timbuk2: Former CEO Sets a Course 351 Developing Your Leadership Skills 9-1 351

CHAPTER 10 Leadership of Culture, Ethics, and Diversity 357 What Is Organizational Culture? 359

Culture Creation and Sustainability 359 / The Power of Culture 360 / Strong versus Weak Cultures 361 / The Leader’s Role in Influencing Culture 364 / Types of Culture 366 / National Culture Identities—Hofstede’s Value Dimensions 369

Organizational Ethics 371 Fostering an Ethical Work Environment 372 / Authentic Leadership 374

Diversity Leadership 375 The Changing Work Place 376 / Benefits of Embracing Diversity 376 / Creating a Pro-Diversity Organizational Culture 378 / The Effects of globalization on Diversity Leadership 382

Chapter Summary 383 Key Terms 384 / Review Questions 385 / Critical-Thinking Questions 385 CASE: Mary Barra—New CEO of general Motors 385 VIDEO CASE: Diversity at PepsiCo 387 Developing Your Leadership Skills 10-1 387 Developing Your Leadership Skills 10-2 388 Developing Your Leadership Skills 10-3 389

CHAPTER 11 Strategic Leadership and Change Management 395 Strategic Leadership 397

globalization and Environmental Sustainability 399 / Strategic Leadership and the Strategic Management Process 400

The Strategic Management Process 401 Crafting a Vision and Mission Statement 402 / Setting Organizational Objectives 404 / Strategy Formulation 405 / Strategy Execution 408 / Strategy Evaluation and Control 411

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 11 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xii CONTENTS

Leading Organizational Change 411 The Need for Organizational Change 412 / The Role of Top Leaders in Managing Change 412 / The Change Management Process 413 / Why People Resist Change 414 / Minimizing Resistance to Change 416

Chapter Summary 418 Key Terms 419 / Review Questions 419 / Critical Thinking Questions 420 CASE: Nike in the Era of CEO Mark Parker 420 VIDEO CASE: Original Penguin Spreads Its Wings 422 Developing Your Leadership Skills 11-1 422 Developing Your Leadership Skills 11-2 423 Developing Your Leadership Skills 11-3 423

CHAPTER 12 Crisis Leadership and the Learning Organization 428 Crisis Leadership 430

Crisis Communication in the Age of Social Media 432 / Formulating a Crisis Plan 433 / The Three-Stage Crisis Management Plan 433 / The Five-Step Crisis Risk Assessment Model 437 / Effective Crisis Communication 440 / guideliness to Effective Crisis Communication 441

The Learning Organization and Knowledge Management 443 Learning Organization Characterisitcs 444 / What Is Knowledge Management? 445 / Traditional Versus the Learning Organization 446 / The Learning Organizational Culture and Firm Performance 449 / The Role of Leaders in Creating a Learning Organization Culture 449

Chapter Summary 452 Key Terms 454 / Review Questions 454 / Critical Thinking Questions 454 CASE: Merck CEO–Ken Frazier. First African American Leading a Major Pharmaceutical Company 455 VIDEO CASE: Managing in Turbulent Times at Second City Theater 457 Developing Your Leadership Skills 12-1 457 Developing Your Leadership Skills 12-2 458

Appendix: Leadership and Spirituality in the Workplace 464 Glossary 474 Index 481

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 12 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xi i i

Preface Target Market This book is intended for leadership courses offered at the undergraduate and graduate levels in schools of busi- ness, public administration, health care, education, psychology, and sociology. No prior coursework in business or management is required. The textbook can also be used in management development courses that emphasize the leadership function, and can supplement management or organizational behavior courses that emphasize leader- ship, especially with an applications/skill development focus.

Goals and Overview of Competitive Advantages In his book Power Tools, John Nirenberg asks, “Why are so many well-intended students learning so much and yet able to apply so little in their personal and professional lives?” Is it surprising that students cannot apply what they read and cannot develop skills, when most textbooks continue to focus on theoretical concepts? Textbooks need to take the next step and develop students’ ability to apply what they read and to build skills using the concepts. I (Lussier) started writing management textbooks in 1988—prior to the call by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) for skill development and outcomes assessment—to help professors teach their stu- dents how to apply concepts and develop management skills. Pfeffer and Sutton concluded that the most important insight from their research is that knowledge that is actually implemented is much more likely to be acquired from learning by doing, than from learning by reading, listening, or thinking. We designed this book to give students the opportunity to learn by doing.

The overarching goal of this book is reflected in its subtitle: theory, application, skill development. We devel- oped the total package to teach leadership theory and concepts, to improve ability to apply the theory through critical thinking, and to develop leadership skills. Following are our related goals in writing this book:

• To be the only traditional leadership textbook to incorporate the three-pronged approach. We make a clear dis- tinction between coverage of theory concepts, their application, and the development of skills based on the con- cepts. The Test Bank includes questions under each of the three approaches.

• To make this the most “how-to” leadership book on the market. We offer behavior models with step-by-step guidelines for handling various leadership functions (such as how to set objectives, give praise and instructions, coach followers, resolve conflicts, and negotiate).

• To offer the best coverage of traditional leadership theories, by presenting the theories and research findings with- out getting bogged down in too much detail.

• To create a variety of high-quality application material, using the concepts to develop critical-thinking skills. • To create a variety of high-quality skill-development exercises, which build leadership skills that can be used in

students’ personal and professional life. • To offer behavior-modeling leadership skills training. • To make available a DVD, including 7 Behavior Model Videos and 12 Video Cases. • To suggest self-assessment materials that are well integrated and illustrate the important concepts discussed in the

text. Students begin by determining their personality profile in Chapter 2, and then assess how their personality affects their leadership potential in the remaining chapters.

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 13 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xiv PREFACE

• To provide a flexible teaching package, so that professors can design the course to best meet the leadership needs of their students. The total package includes more material than can be covered in one course. Supplemental material is included, thus only one book is needed—making it a low-cost alternative for the student.

Flexibility Example The textbook, with 12 chapters, allows time for other materials to be used in the leadership course. The textbook includes all the traditional topics in enough detail, however, to use only the textbook for the course. It offers so much application and skill-development material that it cannot all be covered in class during one semester. Instructors have the f lexibility to select only the content and features that best meet their needs.

Specific Competitive Advantage— Pedagogical Features Three-Pronged Approach We created course materials that truly develop students into leaders. As the title of this book implies, we provide a balanced, three-pronged approach to the curriculum:

• A clear understanding of the traditional theories and concepts of leadership, as well as of the most recently developed leadership philosophies

• Application of leadership concepts through critical thinking • Development of leadership skills

The three-pronged approach is clear in the textbook and is carried throughout the Instructor’s Manual and Test Bank.

Theory

Leadership Theories, Research and References, and Writing Style: This book has been written to provide the best coverage of the traditional leadership theories, present- ing the theories and research findings clearly without being bogged down in too much detail. The book is heavily referenced with classic and current citations. Unlike the text- books of some competitors, this book does not use in-text citations, to avoid distract- ing the reader and adding unnecessary length to the text chapters. Readers can refer to the notes for complete citations of all sources. Thus, the book includes all the traditional leadership topics, yet we believe it is written in a livelier, more conversational manner than those of our competitors.

The following features are provided to support the first step in the three-pronged approach—theory.

Learning Outcomes: Each chapter begins with Learning Outcomes. At the end of the chapter, the Learning Outcomes are integrated into the chapter summary.

Key Terms: A list of key terms appears at the end of each chapter. Clear definitions are given in the text for approximately 15 of the most important concepts from the chapter (with the key term in bold and the definition in italic).

Chapter Summary: The summary lists the Learning Outcomes from the beginning of the chapter and gives the answers. For each chapter, the last Learning Outcome requires

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 14 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

PREFACE xv

students to define the key terms of the chapter by writing the correct key term in the blank provided for each definition.

Review Questions: These questions require recall of information generally not covered in the Learning Outcomes.

Application The second prong of our textbook is to have students apply the leadership theories and concepts so that they can develop critical-thinking skills. Students develop their applica- tion skills through the following features.

Opening Case Application: At the beginning of each chapter, information about an actual manager and organization is presented. The case is followed by four to eight questions to get students involved. Throughout the chapter, the answers to the ques- tions are given to illustrate how the manager/organization actually uses the text concepts to create opportunities and solve problems through decision making. A distinctive head (Opening Case APPLICATION) appears when the opening case is applied in the text.

Work Applications: Open-ended questions, called Work Applications, require students to explain how the text concepts apply to their own work experience; there are over 100 of these scattered throughout the text. Student experience can be present, past, summer, full-time, or part-time employment. The questions help the students bridge the gap between theory and the real world. The Work Applications are also included in the Test Bank, to assess students’ ability to apply the concepts.

Concept Applications: Every chapter contains a series of two to six Concept Applica- tion boxes that require students to determine the leadership concept being illustrated in a specific, short example. All the recommended answers appear in the Instructor’s Manual with a brief explanation. In addition, the Test Bank has similar questions, clearly labeled, to assess students’ ability to apply the concepts.

WORK Application 2-1 Based on your personality profile, identify which dimensions are stronger, moderate, and weaker.

1. What Big Five and leadership personality traits does Ellen Kullman possess?

To a large extent, Ellen Kullman is a successful leader because of her strong personality in the Big Five. She has a strong need for surgency that helped her climb the corporate ladder at DuPont, which is dominated by men.

It took energy and determination to become the first woman CEO of DuPont. She is ranked #3 on the Fortune 50 Most Powerful Women list.

Kullman has agreeableness. She gets along well with people having strong interpersonal skills with EI. Kullman relies more on her personal relationships than her power as CEO to get the job done. She is also sociable and sensitive to others.

She is conscientious at getting the job done. Being very dependable by achieving great success was a cornerstone of her climbing the corporate ladder at DuPont. Plus she is viewed has having a high level of integrity.

Kullman is well adjusted. Competing in a company and industry dominated by men, she has self-control and self-confidence. She is calm, good under pressure, relaxed, secure, and positive. She praises the accomplishments of her employees at all levels.

She is open to new experience because of her innovating and bringing to market new products at a faster clip. Kullman is highly intelligent, has an internal locus of control as she takes charge to bring changes, and is flexible.

OPENING CASE Application

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 15 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xvi PREFACE

Critical-Thinking Questions: There are more than 80 critical-thinking questions (an average of seven per chapter) that can be used for class discussion and/or written assign- ments to develop communication and critical thinking skills.

Cases: Following the Review Questions and Critical Thinking Questions, students are presented with another actual manager and organization. The students learn how the manager/organization applies the leadership concepts from that chapter. Each Case is fol- lowed by questions for the student to answer. Chapters 2 through 11 also include cumula- tive case questions. Cumulative questions relate case material from prior chapters. Thus, students continually review and integrate concepts from previous chapters. Answers to the Case questions are included in the Instructor’s Manual.

Video Cases: All chapters include one Video Case. Seeing actual leaders tackling real management problems and opportunities enhances student application of the concepts. The 12 Video Cases have supporting print material for both instructors and students, including a brief description and critical-thinking questions. Answers to the Video Case questions are included in the Instructor’s Manual.

P.F. Chang’s has over 120 full-service, casual dining Asian bistros and contemporary Chinese diners across the country, and its employees have the authority to make decisions that benefit customers. Giving employees the free- dom to make decisions has had a huge impact on their at- titudes and performance. Managers at P.F. Chang’s receive extensive training on how to create and nurture a positive attitude among their employees, and all workers receive an

employee handbook, which clearly spells out exactly what is expected of them.

1. In what ways does P.F. Chang’s create organizational commitment among its workers?

2. How might a manager at P.F. Chang’s use the Big Five personality factors to assess whether a candidate for a position on the wait staff would be suitable?

V I D E O C A S E

“P.F.” Chang’s Serves Its Workers Well

CONCEPT APPLICATION 2-1

Big Five Personality Dimensions Identify each of these seven traits/behaviors by its personality dimension. Write the appropriate letter in the blank before each item. a. surgency d. conscientiousness b. agreeableness e. openness to experience c. affiliation

1. A leader is saying a warm, friendly hello to followers as they arrive at the meeting.

2. A leader is brainstorming ideas with followers on new products.

3. A follower is yelling about a problem, a leader calmly explains how to solve it.

4. A leader is not very talkative when meeting some unexpected customers.

5. A leader is letting a follower do the job his or her own way to avoid a conflict.

6. A leader is giving detailed instructions to a follower to do the job.

7. A purchasing agent submitted the monthly report on time as usual.

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 16 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

PREFACE xvii

Skill Development The difference between learning about leadership and learning to be a leader is the ac- quisition of skills, our third prong. This text focuses on skill development so students can use the leadership theories and concepts they learn to improve their personal and profes- sional life.

Self-Assessments: Scattered throughout the text are 37Self-Assessments. Students com- plete these exercises to gain personal knowledge. All information for completing and scoring the assessments is contained within the text. Students determine their personal- ity profile in Chapter 2, and then assess how their personality affects their leadership in the remaining chapters. Self-knowledge leads students to an understanding of how they can and will operate as leaders in the real world. Although Self-Assessments do not de- velop a specific skill, they serve as a foundation for skill development.

SELF-ASSESSMENT 9-3 Personality and Charismatic and Transformational Leadership

Charismatic leaders have charisma based on personality and other personal traits that cut across all of the Big Five personality types. Review the ten qualities of charismatic leaders in Exhibit 9.3 on page 333. Which traits do you have?

If you have a high surgency Big Five personality style and a high need for power, you need to focus on

using socialized, rather than personalized, charismatic leadership.

Transformational leaders tend to be charismatic as well. In Self-Assessment 9-1 on page 329 you determined if you were more transformational or transactional. How does your personality affect your transformational and transac- tional leadership styles?

You Make the Ethical Call The boxes present issues of ethics for class discussion, with many presenting actual situations faced by real companies. Each dilemma contains two to four questions for class discussion.

YOU Make the ETHICAL Call

1.1 Is Leadership Really Important?

Scott Adams is the creator of the cartoon character Dilbert. Adams makes fun of manag- ers, in part because he distrusts top-level managers, saying that leadership is really a crock. Leadership is about manipulating people to get them to do something they don’t want to do, and there may not be anything in it for them. CEOs basically run the same scam as fortune-tellers, who make up a bunch of guesses, and when by chance one is correct, they hope you forget the other errors. First, CEOs blame their predecessors for anything that is bad, then they shuffle everything around, start a new strategic program, and wait. When things go well, despite the CEO, the CEO takes the credit and moves on to the next job. Adams says we may be hung up on leadership as part of our DNA. It seems we have always sought to put somebody above everybody else.

1. Do you agree with Scott Adams that leadership is a crock?

2. Do we really need to have someone in the leadership role?

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 17 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xviii PREFACE

Developing Your Leadership Skills: There are between one and four Exercises at the end of each chapter. We use the term developing your leadership skills only in referring to an exercise that will develop a skill that can be used in the students’ personal or professional life at work. Full support of 30 activities can be found in the Instructor’s Manual, includ- ing detailed information, timing, answers, and so on. There are three primary types of exercises:

Individual Focus. Students make individual decisions about exercise questions before or during class. Students can share their answers in class discussions, or the instructor may elect to go over recommended answers.

Group/Team Focus. Students discuss the material presented and may select group an- swers and report to the class.

Role-Play Focus. Students are presented with a model and given the opportunity to use the model to apply their knowledge of leadership theories through role-playing exercises.

Behavior Model Skills Training: Six of the Developing Your Leadership Skills Exercises may be used as part of behavior modeling by using the step-by-step models in the text and the Behavior Model Videos. Meta-analysis research has concluded that behavior modeling skills training is effective at developing leadership skills. For example, students read the conflict resolution model in the text, watch the video in class, and then complete an Exercise (role-play) to resolve a conflict, using the model and feedback from others.

Case Role-Play Exercise: Following each Case are instructions to prepare students to conduct an in-class role-play, based on a situation presented in the Case. Through role- playing, students develop their skills at handling leadership situations. For example, stu- dents are asked to conduct a motivational speech and to develop a vision and mission statement for an organization.

Step-by-Step Behavior Models: In addition to traditional theories of leadership, the text includes behavior models: how-to steps for handling day-to-day leadership functions, such as how to set objectives, give praise, coach, resolve conflicts, delegate, and negotiate.

Behavior Model Videos: There are seven Behavior Model Videos that reinforce the de- velopment of skills. The videos demonstrate leaders successfully handling common lead- ership functions, using the step-by-step behavior models discussed earlier in the Theory section. Students learn from watching the videos and/or using them in conjunction with the Skill-Development Exercises. Material in the text integrates the videos into the chap- ters. Ideas for using all videos are detailed in the Instructor’s Manual.

Objectives

To better understand the four situational communication styles and which style to use in a given situation

Video (12 minutes) Overview

You will first listen to a lecture to understand how to use the situational communications model. Then, you will view two man- agers, Steve and Darius, meeting to discuss faulty parts. You are asked to identify the communication style Darius uses in four

different scenes. Write the letters of the style on the scene line after each scene. This may be completed as part of Developing Your Leadership Skills Exercise 6-2.

Scene 1. Autocratic (S1A)

Scene 2. Consultative (S2C)

Scene 3. Participative (S3P)

Scene 4. Empowerment (S4E)

Behavior Model Video

Situational Communications

6.1

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 18 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

PREFACE xix

In this behavior model skills training session, you will perform three activities:

1 Read “Improving Performance with the Coaching Model” (to review how to use the model).

2 Watch Behavior Model Video 6.2, “Coaching.’’

3 Complete Developing Your Leadership Skills Exercise 6-3 (to develop your coaching skills).

For further practice, use the coaching model in your personal and professional life.

Session 2

Behavior Model Skills Training 2

Supplements Support Instructor’s Companion Site. Access important teaching resources on this companion Web site. For your convenience, you can download electronic versions of the instructor supplements from the password-protected section of the site, including the Instructor’s Manual, Cognero Testing files, Word Test Bank files, PowerPoint® slides, and a DVD Guide.

• Instructor’s Manual. The accompanying Instructor’s Manual, prepared by Robert Lus- sier and Christopher Achua, contains the following for each chapter of the book: a de- tailed outline for lecture enhancement, Review Question answers, Concept Application answers, Case and Video Case question answers, instructions on use of videos, and De- veloping Your Leadership Skills Exercise ideas (including setup and timing). The In- structor’s Manual also contains an introduction that discusses possible approaches to the course and provides an overview of possible uses for various features and how to test and grade them. It explains the use of permanent groups to develop team leadership skills and provides guidance in the development of a course outline/syllabus.

• Cengage Learning Testing Powered by Cognero. This is a flexible, online system that al- lows you to author, edit, and manage test bank content from multiple Cengage Learning solutions; create multiple test versions in an instant; and deliver tests from your LMS, your classroom, or wherever you want. Cengage Learning Testing Powered by Cognero works on any operating system or browser, no special installs or downloads needed. You can create tests from school, home, the coffee shop—anywhere with Internet access.

• Word Test Bank files. These files are converted from the Cognero testing system. All questions have been scrutinized for accuracy, the test bank for each chapter includes true/false, multiple-choice, and essay questions, all correlated to national business standards, learning objectives, level of difficulty, and page references.

• PowerPoint® Lecture Presentations. An asset to any instructor, the lectures provide out- lines for every chapter, illustrations from the text, and emphasize key concepts provid- ing instructors with a number of learning opportunities for students.

• DVD Guide. Designed to facilitate use of the accompanying DVD, this guide provides summaries of each Video Case, as well as the Behavior Model Video segments. Discus- sion starter question and suggested answers are included.

DVD. Chapter closing videos and Behavior Model videos compiled specifically to accom- pany Leadership allow students to engage with the textual materials by applying theories and concepts of real-world situations.

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 19 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xx PREFACE

Summary of Key Innovations Our goal is to make both students and instructors successful by providing learning fea- tures that not only teach about leadership but also help students become leaders. Here are the special ways in which this is done:

• Three-pronged approach (theory, application, skill development) in the textbook and corresponding assessment of the three areas in the Test Bank

• Unique skill-development materials that build leadership skills for use in students’ per- sonal and professional life

• Unique application material to develop critical-thinking skills in applying the leadership concepts and theories

• Unsurpassed video package, with 12 Video Cases and 7 Behavior Model Videos • Flexibility—use any or all of the features that work for you!

Changes to the Sixth Edition The sixth edition and accompanying supplements have been thoroughly revised.

Chapter 1 The chapter has been updated and 90 percent of the references are new to this edition. Learning outcomes 5 and 6 have been combined because they are related, and learning outcome 7 has been deleted, but the review and list of key terms remains in the Chapter Summary. There is a new Opening Case Application about Amazon. The opening section headings (level 1 and 2 heads) have been changed to better match the first learning out- come. The subsection (level 3 head) on the Importance of Leadership has been rewritten with all new current references. There is a new subsection, Why Study Leadership? to an- swer this question. There is a new sub-section, The Need for Self-Assessment in Leader- ship Development, so that students understand the value of the self-assessment exercises in each chapter. Also, it gets student self-assessment in the very first section of the chap- ter. Self-Assessment 1-1 has been expanded to include more questions, which makes some changes to the Five Elements of Leadership. Within the Five Elements of Leadership, The Leader–Follower subsection now has level 4 headings and the influencing, organizational objectives, change, and people subsections have been heavily revised and shortened with new references. The section “Can Leadership Skills be Taught and Skills Developed” has been rewritten and shortened with all new references. The introduction to the Manage- ment Leadership Skills and the discussion of the three management skills has been short- ened with new references. The Interpersonal Roles now begins with the leader, and the discussion of all ten roles has been condensed. You Make the Ethical Call 1.2, Execu- tive Compensation, has been shortened and updated with all new references. Each of the Leadership Theory Paradigms has been shortened by removing some of the details of the findings of each paradigm that is discussed in later chapters. AACSB standards have been updated using the 2013 AACSB Business Accreditation Standards, General Skills Areas. The listing of AACSB skills developed in each of the Skill Building Exercises throughout the book has also been updated. The case is essentially new as indicated in the new title “From Steve Jobs to Tim Cook—Apple.” The information on Jobs has been decreased and the information on Cook has been increased, with several new references and current performance reported with Cook as CEO.

Chapter 2 The chapter has been updated and 92 percent of the references are new to this edition. The opening case is still DuPont, but it has been rewritten and updated with new references.

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 20 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

PREFACE xxi

The first major section has been re-titled “Personality Traits and Leadership Trait Uni- versality” and reorganized to better focus on Learning Outcome 1, “Explain the univer- sality of traits of effective leaders.” The number 2 head “Applying Trait Theory” has been replaced with “Leadership Trait Universality,” and the discussion of “We Can Improve” and “Derailed Leadership Traits” level 3 heads has been moved to the “Personality Pro- file” section. The introduction to the Ethical Leadership section has been rewritten with all new references. The section “Does Ethical Behavior Pay?” has been rewritten with all new references. There is a new subsection, “Why Do Good People Do Bad Things?” The subsection “The Situation” has been expanded to include the “bad apple bad barrel” con- cept and include more situations in which unethical behavior may occur. In the “Guides to Ethical Behavior” section, subsection discussing codes of ethics and discernment and getting advice have been added. There is a new Work Application 2-4 to apply how people justify unethical behavior at work. The section “ Being an Ethical Leader ” has been de- leted to shorten the chapter a bit. The end-of-chapter case is new—TOMS.

Chapter 3 The chapter has been updated and 86 percent of the references are new to this edition while listing the classical references to leadership and motivation theory. The opening case is still Trader Joe’s, but it has been updated and shortened. The introduction to the chapter has been rewritten with all new references. The “University of Michigan and Ohio State University Studies” section has been shortened a bit. The section, Motivation and Leadership, has been rewritten with all new references. The section on Reinforce- ment Theory has been shortened some, and the subsection “The Folly of Rewarding A, While Hoping for B” with Exhibit 3.12 has been deleted. The end-of-chapter case is new, Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg. There is also a new role-play exercise that goes with it.

Chapter 4 The chapter has been updated throughout. However, this chapter is based on older con- tingency leadership theories. Therefore, it includes more classical references than several of the other chapters. There are 46 references and 13 are from the fifth edition, so 33 or 72 percent of the references are new to this edition. The opening case is still Indra Nooyi at PepsiCo, but the case has been completely rewritten. The Contingency Leader- ship Theory and Models section introduction has been updated with all new references. The closing case name has been changed by dropping the name Terry Gou from the title. It has been updated and the information about Foxconn has been shortened a bit. There are changes to all of the applying the concept boxes. The skill building exercises include the new AACSB General Skills Areas.

Chapter 5 The chapter has been updated throughout. There are 80 references and 5 are from the fifth edition; so 75, or 94 percent, of the references are new to this edition. The opening case is Mark Cuban, but the case has been completely rewritten and shorter. The intro- duction to the Power section has been essentially rewritten with all new references. The amount of explanation of the Types of Power and Influencing Tactics, and Ways to In- crease Your Power has been reduced. The subsection “Acquiring and Losing Power” has been deleted. The introduction to the Networking section has been rewritten with all new references. The second level heading Social Networking at Work has been dropped to a third level, rewritten and shortened. The key term definition of negotiation has been changed. The end-of-chapter case title and the people’s names in the case have been changed.

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 21 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xxii PREFACE

Chapter 6 The chapter has been updated throughout. There are 87 references and 3 are from the fifth edition; so 84, or 97 percent, of the references are new to this edition. The entire Communications section has been shortened a bit throughout. The section “Communi- cation and Leadership” has been completely rewritten with all new references. The second level heading 360-Degree Multirater Feedback is now a level 3 head. Learning Outcome 6 and the section “Common Approaches to “Getting Feedback on Messages, and Why They Don’t Work” have been changed by dropping the four reasons why people don’t ask questions. The introduction to the Coaching section has been rewritten with new refer- ences. The Managing Conflict section has been reorganized, moving the Conflict and Leadership section into the introduction and Psychological Contract sections. The end- of-chapter cases is still Netflix, but it has been updated and shortened a bit.

Chapter 7 More than 90 percent of the references are new to this edition. Learning Outcomes 1 through 4 and 8 are new. The opening case has been updated with new references. We changed the opening section title heading to read as follows: “From Vertical Dyadic Link- age Theory to Leader–Member Exchange Theory.” We redirected the discussion away from Evolution of Dyadic Theory and focused only on VDL and LMX. The subsection on Team Member Exchange Theory is eliminated from Chapter 7 and moved to Chapter 8 that deals with Team Leadership. The subsection on factors that influence LMX relation- ships has been rewritten with two new level 3 headings: The Role of the Leader and The Role of the Follower in Inf luencing LMX relationships. We eliminated the subsection titled “Developing High-Quality LMX Relationships.” The content in this section is now discussed under the newly created subsection titled “The Role of the Follower in Influ- encing LMX Relationships.” The subsection on strengths and limitations of LMX theory has been eliminated. In its place is a new subsection titled “The Two Main Criticisms of LMX Theory.” The subsection “Determinants of Follower Influence” has been renamed “Factors That Can Enhance Follower Influence.” The subsection “Follower Evaluation and Feedback” has been renamed “Evaluating Followers: Guidelines for Success.”

Chapter 8 This chapter has been broadly updated with a significant amount of references new to this edition. The opening case is still Southwest Airlines, but it has been rewritten and updated with new references. There is a new Concept Application 8-2 to test the student’s understanding of organizational culture and team creativity. There has been a major re- vision of the opening heading “The Use of Teams in Organizations” with new references. The subsection “Groups versus Teams: What is the Difference” has been re-titled “Is It a Group or a Team?” This section has been completely revised and shortened. Exhibit 8-2, “The Team Leader’s Role in Creating Effective,” has been deleted. The listed activities in the exhibit have been summarized into a concise but easy to understand narrative. Exhibit 8.3, “Guidelines for Improving Cross-Functional Team Effectiveness,” has been deleted due to its redundancy to the characteristics of effective teams presented in Exhibit 8-1. The end-of-chapter case has been revised with new references and updates.

Chapter 9 This chapter has been broadly updated with a significant amount of references new to this edition. The opening case still features Oprah Winfrey, but it has been completely rewrit- ten from a different vantage point and updated with new references. The introduction

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 22 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

PREFACE xxiii

to the chapter has been shortened. All Concept Application exercises have been updated and, in many cases, new questions added. The subsection on the Effects of Transforma- tional Leadership has been rewritten and the content shortened. The subsection on the Transformational versus Transactional Leadership has been rewritten and the content shortened. The section on Stewardship and Servant Leadership has been restructured from three subheadings to just two subheadings. The new sub-headings are: Stewardship and Attributes of the Effective Steward Leader and Servant Leadership and Attributes of the Effective Servant Leader. The end-of-chapter case still features Ursula Burns and Xe- rox Corporation but with new information and updates.

Chapter 10 The chapter has been updated throughout. There are 117 references and 4 are from the fifth edition; so 113, or 97%, of the references are new to this edition. The opening case is Avon Corporation, but the case has been completely rewritten to focus on Avon’s a new CEO—Sheri McCoy. All the Concept Application Exercises have been changed or modified. A new subsection on Culture Creation and Sustainability has been added. Two subheadings—Characteristics of Strong Cultures and Characteristics of Weak Cultures— have been dropped from level 2 to level 3 subheadings. These two subheadings have been significant shortened by not discussing each characteristic as a separate subheading. In- stead, a summary narrative is given and the specific characteristics presented in the ex- hibits. The four subheadings on types of culture—Cooperative, Competitive, Adaptive, and Bureaucratic—have been dropped from level 2 to level 3 subheadings. Each of Hof- stede’s Five Value Dimensions for Understanding National Cultures has been dropped from a level 2 to a level 3 subheading. The four recommended practices for fostering an ethical work environment have been dropped from level 2 to level 3 subheadings. The subsection on the Characteristics of Authentic Leaders has been dropped. Its content is included in the subsection titled “What is Authentic Leadership?” The subheading for- merly titled “Changing Demographics and Workforce Diversity” has been re-titled “The Changing Workplace.” Also, demographic diversity has been deleted as a key term. The subsection titled “The Downside of Diversity” has been deleted. Each of the factors that support a pro-diversity organizational culture has been changed from level 2 to level 3 subheadings. The end-of-chapter case is new.

Chapter 11 The chapter has been updated throughout. There are 98 references and 12 are from the fifth edition; so 86, or 90 percent, of the references are new to this edition. The opening case has been updated. All the Concept Application Exercises have been modified. The subsection on strategic leadership failures has been dropped. The focus of the chapter is on strategic leadership; as such, we made it is the first major heading (level 1) and con- verted Globalization and Environmental Sustainability into a level 2 subheading under Strategic Leadership. The first part of the chapter on strategic leadership and the strategic management process has undergone significant restructuring and rewriting. A new sub- heading titled “Leading the Strategic Management Process” has been added under strate- gic leadership. Each of the five tasks of the strategic management process is discussed as level 2 subheadings with significant revisions and updates. Exhibit 11-1 (Strategic Man- agement Framework) has been replaced with a new exhibit). It is now titled “The Strategic Management Process.” We have eliminated the subsection (level 3 heading) titled “Rec- ommendations for Minimizing Resistance to Change.” The subsection titled “Strategic Management in Action” has been dropped. Exhibit 11-2 (Change Implementation Pro- cess) has been dropped. The end-of-chapter case has been updated.

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 23 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xxiv PREFACE

Chapter 12 The chapter has been updated throughout. There are 121 references, and only 13 are from the fifth edition; so 108, or 89 percent, of the references are new to this edition. The opening chapter case is new. It focuses on Antonio Perez and Eastman Kodak. The sub- section on crisis leadership training has been dropped. Content has been incorporated under Crisis Leadership. The section on formulating a crisis management plan has been reorganized with two new subsections added and one deleted. Also, in this section, crisis risk assessment has received expanded coverage and elevated to a level 2 subheading now titled “The Five-Step Risk Assessment Model.” The subsection titled “Spotlight on the Af- rican Crisis” has been deleted. The end-of-chapter case is still on Ken Frazier and Merck but completely new in its content and focus.

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 24 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

x xv

Acknowledgments I’m deeply honored that Judi Neal, CEO of Edgewalkers, http://edgewalkers.org/ (wrote the Appendix, “Leadership and Spirituality in the Workplace”). I also want to thank my mentor and coauthor of many publications, Joel Corman, for his advice and encourage- ment during and after my graduate education at Suffolk University.

I hope everyone who uses this text enjoys teaching from these materials as I do.

Robert N. Lussier, Springfield College

As it has been with past editions of this book, working with Bob Lussier is always a learn- ing and growth experience that I value very much. He is a good friend and a mentor. To my students, friends, and colleagues who have encouraged and supported me morally, I say thanks. And, finally, I give recognition and thanks to the leadership of my institution, the University of Virginia’s College at Wise, for their support of scholarship of this kind.

Christopher F. Achua, University of Virginia’s College at Wise

Finally, we both would like to acknowledge the superb assistance we received from our editorial team. The guidance, support, and professionalism of Scott Person, Julia Chase, Jennifer Ziegler, the team at Lumina Datamatics, Inc., and Sally Nieman were invaluable to the completion of this project. We would also like to thank Amy Richard for her prepa- ration of support material. We sincerely acknowledge the reviewers and survey respon- dents of this and past editions who provided feedback that greatly improved the quality of this book in many areas.

Reviewers Chris Adalikwu, Concordia College—Selma, Alabama Josje Andmore, Camosun College School of Business Kathy Bohley, University of Indianapolis John Bonosoro, Webster University Brenda D. Bradford, Missouri Baptist University Brian W. Bridgeforth, Herzing College Carl R. Broadhurst, Campbell University Jon Burch, Trevecca Nazarene University Debi Cartwright, Truman State University Don Cassiday, North Park University Ken Chapman, Webster University Felipe Chia, Harrisburg Area Community College Valerie Collins, Sheridan College George W. Crawford, Clayton College & State University Janice Cunningham, Indiana Tech

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 25 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xxvi ACKNOWLEDgMENTS

Sue Cunningham, Rowan Cabarrus Community College Joseph Daly, Appalachian State University Frederick T. Dehner, Rivier College Melinda Drake, Limestone College Rex Dumdum, Marywood University Ray Eldridge, Freed-Hardeman University Debi Carter-Ford, Wilmington College Dave Foster, Montana State University Gerald A. Garrity, Anna Maria College Thomas Garsombke, Northland College Ronald Gayhart, Lakeshore Tech College Michele Geiger, College of Mount St. Joseph James Gelatt, University of Maryland University College Don R. Gibson, Houston Baptist University Eunice M. Glover, Clayton College & State University Garry Grau, Northeast State Community College Wade Graves, Grayson County College Ray Grubbs, Millsaps College Frank Hamilton, Eckerd College Deborah Hanson, University of Great Falls Nathan Hanson, Palm Beach Atlantic Mary Ann Hazen, University of Detroit Mercy Linda Hefferin, Elgin Community College Marilyn M. Helms, Dalton State College Mary Hogue, Kent State University, Stark Campus Carol Himelhoch, Siena Heights University Donny Hurwitz, Austin Community College Stewart Husted, Virginia Military Institute Dr. Katherine Hyatt, Reinhardt University Gale A. Jaeger, Marywood University Lori Happel-Jarratt, The College of St. Scholastica David Jones, North Carolina State University Thomas O. Jones, Jr., Greensboro College Louis Jourdan, Clayton State University Paul N. Keaton, University of Wisconsin–La Crosse Gary Kleemann, Arizona State University East Susan Kowalewski, D’Youville College Bill Leban, DeVry University Chet Legenza, DeVry University Sondra Lucht, Mountain State University Cheryl Macon, Butler Community College James Maddox, Friends University Kathleen B. Magee, Anna Maria College

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 26 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

ACKNOWLEDgMENTS xxvii

Charles Mambula, Suffolk University Gary May, Clayton College & State University David McCalman, University of Central Arkansas Lee E. Meadows, Walsh College Ken Miller, Mountain State University Michael Monahan, Frostburg State University Steve Morreale, Worcester State College Lorrie Mowry, McCook Community College Jamie Myrtle, MidAmerica Nazarene University Rhonda S. Palladi, Georgia State University Patricia Parker, Maryville University Jeff Pepper, Chippewa Valley Tech College Nicholas Peppes, St. Louis Community College Melinda Phillabaum, Indiana University Laura Poppo, Virginia Tech William Price, North County Community College Dr. Kanu Priya, Arkansas State University Gordon Rands, Western Illinois University Kira K. Reed, Syracuse University Marlys Rizzi, Simpson College Mary Sacavage, Alvernia College Schuylkill Center Khaled Sartawi, Fort Valley State University Christopher Sieverdes, Clemson University H. D. Sinopoli, Waynesburg College Thomas G. Smith, Fort Valley State University Emeric Solymossy, Western Illinois University—Quad Cities Martha C. Spears, Winthrop University Shane Spiller, Morehead State University Karen Stephens, Camosun College Bill Tracey, Central Connecticut State University Dr. Robert Trumpy, Central Washington University Robin Turner, Rowan-Cabarrus Community College John Waltman, Eastern Michigan University Fred A. Ware, Jr., Valdosta State University Kerr F. Watson, Mount Olive College Kristopher Weatherly, Campbellsville University Amy Wojciechowski, West Shore Community College Mike Woodson, Northeast Iowa Community College Jan Wyatt, Hesser College Benjamin R. Wygal, Southern Adventist University Kimberly S. Young, St. Bonaventure University Kenneth J. Zula, Keystone College Joseph E. Zuro, Troy State University

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 27 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

x xvi i i

About the Authors ROBERT N. LUSSIER is a professor of management at Springfield College and has taught management for more than 25 years. He has developed innovative and widely copied methods for applying concepts and developing skills that can be used in one’s personal and professional life. He was the director of Israel Programs and taught there. Other international experiences include Namibia and South Africa.

Dr. Lussier is a prolific writer, with over 400 publications to his credit. His articles have been published in the Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, Business Horizons, En- trepreneurship Theory and Practice, Journal of Business Strategies, Journal of Management Education, Journal of Small Business Management, Journal of Small Business Strategy, SAM® Advanced Management Journal, and others. His other textbooks include Manage- ment Fundamentals: Concepts, Applications, Skill Development 6e (Sage); Human Rela- tions in Organizations: Applications and Skill Building 9e (Irwin/McGraw-Hill); Business, Society and Government Essentials: Strategy and Applied Ethics (Routledge); and others.

When not writing, Dr. Lussier consults to a wide array of commercial and nonprofit organizations. In fact, some of the material in the book was developed for such clients as Baystate Medical Center, Coca-Cola, Friendly’s Ice Cream, the Institute of Financial Education, Mead, Monsanto, Smith & Wesson, the Social Security Administration, the Visiting Nurses Associations of America, and the YMCA.

Dr. Lussier holds a bachelor of science in business administration from Salem State College, two master’s degrees in business and education from Suffolk University, and a doctorate in management from the University of New Haven.

CHRISTOPHER F. ACHUA is a professor in the Department of Business and Economics at the University of Virginia’s College at Wise. His teaching has centered on three disciplines: strategic management, marketing, and organizational leadership. Dr. Achua’s interest in engaging students in real-life learning opportunities led him to create and direct programs such as the Center for Entrepreneurship, Leadership, and Service and the Small Business Institute at his university. These programs focused on developing students’ leadership and entrepreneurial skills by applying theory to real-world situations.

Dr. Achua has presented scholarly papers at regional and national conferences. His papers have been published in many refereed proceedings, the Small Business Institute Journal, and the Journal of Small Business Strategy. When not involved in academic pur- suits, he lends his expertise to community development programs and initiatives. He has served on several boards of organizations in the local community, and was chair of the Mountain Empire Regional Business Incubator’s board of directors.

Dr. Achua received his undergraduate degree in business administration and account- ing from the University of Sioux Falls, South Dakota; his MBA from the University of South Dakota; and his doctorate from the United States International University (now Alliant International University) in San Diego, California.

66352_FM_ptg01_i-xxviii.indd 28 10/21/14 12:17 AM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

1

Chapter

1

C h a p t e r O U t L I N e

Leadership Described

Leadership Development

Defining Leadership with Five Key Elements

Leadership Skills

Are Leaders Born or Made?

Can Leadership Be Taught and Skills Developed?

Managerial Leadership Skills

Leadership Managerial Roles

Interpersonal Roles

Informational Roles

Decisional Roles

Levels of Analysis of Leadership Theory

Individual Level of Analysis

Group Level of Analysis

Organizational Level of Analysis

Interrelationships among the Levels of Analysis

Leadership Theory Paradigms

The Trait Theory Paradigm

The Behavior Leadership Theory Paradigm

The Contingency Leadership Theory Paradigm

The Integrative Leadership Theory Paradigm

From the Management to the Leadership Theory Paradigm

Objectives of the Book

Leadership Theory

Application of Leadership Theory

Leadership Skill Development

Flexibility

Organization of the Book

Who Is a Leader and What Skills Do Leaders Need?

Learning Outcomes After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

1 Briefly describe the five key elements of leadership. p. 5

2 Identify and define the managerial leadership skills. p. 8

3 List the ten managerial roles based on their three categories. p. 11

4 Explain the interrelationships among the levels of leadership analysis. p. 15

5 Describe the major similarity and difference between the trait and behavioral leadership theories, and the interrelationships between them and contingency theories. p. 16

66352_ch01_ptg01_001-030.indd 1 10/15/14 12:47 PM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

2 part 1 INDIVIDUALS AS LEADERS

Jeff Bezos amazon.com We begin each chapter by introducing an exceptional leader and company, followed by some questions for you to answer, and we answer the questions throughout the chapter.

Back in July 1995, e-commerce pioneer Jeff Bezos launched Amazon.com as an online bookstore at age 30. Over the years he transformed Amazon into “the every- thing store” that rivals Walmart as a store, Apple as a de- vice maker, and IBM as a data services provider. Amazon is a Fortune 500 company, ranked in the top 50, with sales expected to exceed $75 billion in 2013.

Bezos is a demanding boss who doesn’t tolerate stu- pidity. If employees don’t have the right answers or try to bluff or show uncertainty or frailty, he has been known to make harsh comments. But his criticism is almost always on target that leads to improvements. He is obsessed with improving company performance and customer service and has a public e-mail. When he gets a complaint that irks him, employees get a Bezos question mark e-mail, and they react to resolve the issue quickly, like a ticking bomb.

Bezos is incredibly intelligent, even about things he knows little about. He has won numerous awards for his leadership, including Time magazine Person of the Year and Fortune named Bezos as the best CEO in 2012. He has an estimated net worth of close to $30 billion.

OpeNING CaSe QUeStIONS:

1. Why is Amazon so successful?

2. Does Amazon use our definition of leadership?

3. What managerial leadership skills does CEO Jeff Bezos use at Amazon?

4. What managerial leadership roles does CEO Jeff Bezos perform at Amazon?

Can you answer any of these questions? You’ll find an- swers to these questions about Amazon and its leadership throughout the chapter.

To learn more about Amazon, visit the company’s Web site at http://www. amazon.com.

1 Reference for open case and answers to the question within the chapter.

OPENING CASE Application

The focus of this chapter is on helping you understand what leadership is and what this book is all about. As you can see in the chapter outline, we begin by discussing why leadership is important and defining leadership. Then we explain the three managerial leadership skills and the ten roles that managerial leaders perform. Next we explain the three levels of leadership analysis, which provides the framework for the book. After explaining the four major leadership paradigms that have developed over the years, we end this chapter by stating the objectives of the book and presenting its organization.

Leadership Described In this section, we discuss the leadership course and define leadership as having five key elements.

Leadership Development Leadership is everyone’s business, so let’s begin with a discussion of the importance of leadership, then answer the question, “Why study leadership?” and also state the impor- tance of self-awareness in leadership development.

Why Leadership Development Is Important Here are just a few reasons why leadership is so important and the need for self-awareness in leadership.

66352_ch01_ptg01_001-030.indd 2 10/15/14 12:47 PM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Chapter 1 Who IS A LEADER AND WhAt SkILLS Do LEADERS NEED? 3

Leadership is a key issue in management and has been for more than 100 years,2 as thousands of leadership studies have been conducted,3 and interest in leadership remains strong.4 I did a Google search and got “about 434,000,000 results.”5

Organizations spend a great deal of effort and resources to teach employees how to lead.6 More specifically, corporations spend more than $2.2 trillion on education and training, with an estimated $10 billion being spent on leadership development alone.7 Leadership development is often cited as an important priority because it is viewed as a competitive advantage8 as there can be significant positive returns to the investment in leadership development.9

Although it is generally agreed that leadership is important, critics of leadership devel- opment programs state that new college graduates lack the skills necessary to effectively lead people.10

As the examples illustrate, leadership matters, and there is a great need for leaders to use best practices.11 To this end, the focus of this book is to help you develop your leadership skills, so that you can become a successful leader in your personal and professional life.

Why Study Leadership? It’s natural at this point to be thinking, “What can I get from this book?” or “What’s in it for me?” These common questions are seldom asked or answered directly. The short answer is that the better you can work with people—and this is what most of this book is about—the more successful you will be in both your personal and your professional lives.12 If you are a manager, or want to be a manager someday, you need good leadership skills to be successful.13 Even if you are not interested in being a manager, you still need leadership skills to succeed in today’s workplace.14 The old workplace, in which managers simply told employees what to do, is gone. Today, employees want to be involved in management,15 and organizations expect employees to work in teams and share in decision making and other management tasks.16

The study of leadership also applies directly to your personal life. You communicate with, and interact with, people every day; you make personal plans and decisions, set goals, prioritize what you will do, and get others to do things for you. Are you ever in con- flict with family and friends? This book can help you develop leadership skills that you can apply in all of those areas.

The Need for Self-Assessment in Leadership Development Instructors often incorporate self-assessment.17 “Know Thyself ” or self-awareness has been called the leadership first commandment,18 so the first step to leadership devel- opment is self-awareness of leadership competencies.19 To provide you with leadership self-awareness, every chapter has self-assessment exercises. Let’s start now to better un- derstand your leadership potential by completing Self-Assessment 1-1.

Leadership potential SELF-ASSESSMENT 1-1

As with all of the self-assessment exercises in this book, there are no right or wrong answers, so don’t try to pick what you think is the right answer. Be honest in answering the questions, so that you can better understand yourself and your behavior as it relates to leadership.

For each pair of statements, distribute 5 points, based on how characteristic each statement is of you. If the first statement is totally like you and the second is not like you at all, give 5 points to the first and 0 to the second. If it is the opposite, use 0 and 5. If the statement is usually like you, then the distribution can be 4 and 1, or 1 and 4.

If both statements tend to be like you, the distribution should be 3 and 2, or 2 and 3. Again, the combined score for each pair of statements must equal 5.

66352_ch01_ptg01_001-030.indd 3 10/15/14 12:47 PM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

4 part 1 INDIVIDUALS AS LEADERS

1. Why is amazon so successful?

Founder and CEO Jeff Bezos is the key to Amazon’s success. Bezos is obsessed with improving company performance and customer service by offering wider selection, lower prices, and fast, reliable delivery. Amazon’s mission is to seek to be Earth’s most customer-centric company for four primary customer sets: consumers, sellers, enterprises, and content creators. Under Bezos’s leadership, Amazon has grown to become the everything store, with global operation in Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Spain, and the United Kingdom, selling more than 20 million products. It is known as one of the most successful companies in the world, and is ranked 3rd as the Fortune World’s Most Admired Companies and ranked 1st as the most trusted U.S. brand.

OPENING CASE Application

here are the scoring distributions for each pair of statements:

0–5 or 5–0 one of the statements is totally like you, the other not like you at all. 1–4 or 4–1 one statement is usually like you, the other not. 2–3 or 3–2 Both statements are like you, although one is slightly more like you.

1. I’m interested in and willing to take charge of a group of people.

I want someone else to be in charge of the group.

2. When I’m not in charge, I’m willing to give input to the leader to improve performance.

When I’m not in charge, I do things the leader’s way, rather than offer my suggestions.

3. I’m interested in and willing to get people to listen to my suggestions and to imple- ment them.

I’m not interested in influencing other people. 4. I offer ideas and suggestions that are com-

monly implemented by others. I don’t offer many ideas and suggestions,

and they are often ignored. 5. When I’m in charge, I want to share the

management responsibilities with group members.

When I’m in charge, I want to perform the management functions for the group.

6. I want to have clear goals and to develop and implement plans to achieve them.

I like to have very general goals and take things as they come.

7. I like to change the way my job is done and to learn and do new things.

I like stability, or to do my job the same way; I don’t like learning and doing new things.

8. I enjoy working with people and helping them succeed.

I don’t really like working with people and helping them succeed.

9. I get greater pleasure in team accomplishments.

I get greater pleasure in personal accomplishments.

10. I seek harmony in teams and try to resolve conflicts.

I avoid conflict and let group members resolve their own conflicts.

to determine your leadership potential score, add up the numbers (0–5) for the first statement in each pair; don’t bother adding the numbers for the second statement. the total should be between 0 and 50. Place your score on the continuum at the end of this assessment.

0 — 5 — 10 — 15 — 20 — 25 — 30 — 35 — 40 — 45 — 50 Lower leadership potential Higher leadership potential

Generally, the higher your score, the greater your potential to be an effective leader. however, essentially no one gets a perfect score. the key to success is not simply potential but persistence and hard work. You can develop your leadership ability through this course by applying the principles and theories to your personal and professional lives.

If you want to be a leader, what areas do you need to work on to improve your leadership skills?

SELF-ASSESSMENT 1-1 Leadership potential (continued)

66352_ch01_ptg01_001-030.indd 4 10/15/14 12:47 PM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Chapter 1 Who IS A LEADER AND WhAt SkILLS Do LEADERS NEED? 5

YOU Make the ethICaL Call

1.1 Is Leadership Really Important?

Scott Adams is the creator of the cartoon character Dilbert. Adams makes fun of manag- ers, in part because he distrusts top-level managers, saying that leadership is really a crock. He says leadership is about manipulating people to get them to do something they don’t want to do, and when there may not be anything in it for them. According to Adams, CEOs basically run the same scam as fortune-tellers, who make up a bunch of guesses and when by chance one is correct, they hope you forget the other errors. First, CEOs blame their predecessors for anything that is bad, then they shuffle everything around, start a new strategic program, and wait. When things go well, despite the CEO, the CEO takes the credit and moves on to the next job. Adams says we may be hung up on leader- ship as part of our DNA. It seems we have always sought to put somebody above every- body else.20

1. Do you agree with Scott Adams that leadership is a crock?

2. Do we really need to have someone in the leadership role?

Briefly describe the five key elements of leadership.Learning outcome 1

Defining Leadership with Five Key elements When people think about leadership, images come to mind of powerful dynamic individ- uals who command victorious armies, shape the events of nations, develop religions, or direct corporate empires. Why are certain leaders so successful? Why do certain leaders have dedicated followers while others do not? Why were Gandhi, Mother Theresa, Martin Luther King, and Nelson Mandela such influential leaders? In this book, you will learn the major leadership theories and research findings regarding leadership effectiveness.

There is no universal definition of leadership because leadership is complex, and be- cause leadership is studied in different ways that require different definitions. As in lead- ership research studies, we will use a single definition that meets our purpose in writing this book. Here, we define leadership and discuss its five elements, which are included in Self-Assessment 1-1, as each of the ten questions relates to the elements of our leadership definition and to your leadership potential.

Leadership is the influencing process between leaders and followers to achieve orga- nizational objectives through change. Let’s discuss the five key elements of our definition; see Exhibit 1.1 for a list.

Leadership Definition Key EXHIBIT 1.1

Influence

Organizational Objectives

PeopleChange

LeadershipLeaders–Followers

© C

en ga

ge L

ea rn

in g®

66352_ch01_ptg01_001-030.indd 5 10/15/14 12:47 PM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

6 part 1 INDIVIDUALS AS LEADERS

Leaders–Followers Leadership is typically understood to take place where leaders and followers share a formal group membership,21 and leadership is important as more organizations struc- ture work around teamwork.22 Question 1 of Self-Assessment 1-1 is meant to get you thinking about whether you want to be a leader or a follower. If you are not interested and not willing to be in charge, you are better suited to be a follower. However, leader- ship is shared.

Leadership is shared. One leader can’t figure it all out.23 Leadership is plural, not singular, as you can have many leaders.24 Good followers also perform leadership roles when needed. And followers influence leaders. Thus, in our definition of leadership, the inf luencing process is between leaders and followers, not just a leader inf luencing fol- lowers; it’s a two-way street.25 Knowing how to lead and developing leadership skills will make you a better leader and follower.26 So whether you want to be a leader or a follower, you will benefit from this book.

Organizations and managers or employees. Throughout this book, leadership is referred to in the context of formal organizational settings in business corporations (GE, IBM), government agencies (the Kent Police Department), and nonprofit organizations (Red Cross). Organizations have two major classifications of employees: managers, who have subordinates and formal authority to tell them what to do; and employees, who do not. All managers perform four major functions: planning, organizing, leading, and con- trolling. Leadership is thus a part of the manager’s job. However, there are managers— you may know some—who are not effective leaders. There are also nonmanagers who have great influence on managers and peers.27

Manager or leader and followers? In this book, we do not use the terms manager and leader interchangeably. When we use the word manager, we mean a person who has a formal title and authority. When we use the term leader, we mean a person who may be either a manager or a nonmanager. A leader has the ability to influence others; a manager may not. Thus, a leader is not necessarily a person who holds some formal position such as manager.

A follower is a person who is being influenced by a leader. A follower can be a man- ager or a nonmanager—leadership is shared. Good followers are not “yes people” who simply follow the leader without giving input that inf luences the leader. The qualities needed for effective leadership are the same as those needed to be an effective follower. Throughout this book, we use the term behavior when referring to the activities of peo- ple or the things they do and say as they are influenced. You will learn more about fol- lowership in Chapter 7.

As implied in Question 2 of Self-Assessment 1-1, good followers give input and influ- ence leaders. If you want to be an effective follower, you need to share your ideas. Also, as a leader you need to listen to others and implement their ideas to be effective. According to GE CEO Jeff Immelt, GE is not run like a big company; it is run like a big partner- ship, where every leader can make a contribution not just to their job, but to the entire company.28

Influence Influencing is the process of a leader communicating ideas, gaining acceptance of them, and motivating followers to support and implement the ideas through change. The essence of leadership is inf luencing.29 Let’s face it; we all want to get our way, which is being influential.

Question 3 of Self-Assessment 1-1 asked if you were interested in, and willing to, inf luence others, as a leader or follower and Question 4 asked if you offer ideas and

WORK Application 1-1 Recall a present or past job. Were you both a leader and a follower? Explain.

WORK Application 1-2 Briefly explain the influencing relationship between the leader and followers where you work(ed).

66352_ch01_ptg01_001-030.indd 6 10/15/14 12:47 PM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Chapter 1 Who IS A LEADER AND WhAt SkILLS Do LEADERS NEED? 7

suggestions that are commonly implemented by others. When you have a management position, you have more power to inf luence others. But, effective followers also inf lu- ence others. Your ability to inf luence others can be developed. Inf luencing includes power, politics, and negotiating; you will learn more about how to inf luence others in Chapter 5.

Question 5 asked if you want to share management responsibility as a leader. Influenc- ing is also about the relationship between leaders and followers. Managers may coerce subordinates to influence their behavior, but leaders do not. Leaders gain the commit- ment and enthusiasm of followers who are willing to be influenced as they share leader- ship. Good leaders seek input from all team members.30

Organizational Objectives Effective leaders influence followers, but to do what—to accomplish shared objectives.31 Setting objectives clearly affects performance.32 Members of the organization need to work together toward an outcome that the leader and followers both want, a desired fu- ture or shared purpose that motivates them toward this more preferable outcome. As im- plied in Question 6 of Self-Assessment 1, effective leaders set clear goals with their team. You will learn how to set objectives in Chapter 3.

Change Influencing and setting objectives is about change, as leaders set objectives for behav- ioral change.33 Leaders bring about change by asking followers for their input,34 to change the status quo,35 to continuously improve work processes, and to develop new innovative products and services.36 As implied in Question 7 of Self-Assessment 1 and the informa- tion in this section, to be an effective leader and follower you must be open to change. To be successful, you need to change your systems and strategies.37 When was the last time you did something new and different? You will learn more about leading change in Chapter 11.

People Although the term people is not specifically mentioned in our definition of leadership, after reading about the other elements, you should realize that leadership is about leading people through relationships.38 It’s the people that accomplish the objectives.39 As im- plied in Questions 8–10 of Self-Assessment 1-1, to be effective at almost every job today, you must be able to get along with people.40 You will learn how to develop your people skills throughout this book.

WORK Application 1-3 State one or more objectives from an organization where you work(ed).

WORK Application 1-4 Are the managers where you work(ed) effective at influencing their employees to bring about change? Explain.

WORK Application 1-5 Do managers where you work(ed) treat their employees as valuable assets? Explain.

2. Does amazon use our definition of leadership?

Jeff Bezos is clearly the leader at Amazon, but he also gets ideas from his followers. Bezos is also very influential. He con- vinces investors to give him money to grow Amazon, gets other businesses to offer products and services through his Web site, and gets customers to buy those products. Bezos has a clear shared vision and objectives for the company. Amazon is fundamentally changing the way that people buy and read books with e-book readers and tablets. Amazon is about service to people.

OPENING CASE Application

66352_ch01_ptg01_001-030.indd 7 10/15/14 12:47 PM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

8 part 1 INDIVIDUALS AS LEADERS

Leadership Skills In this section, let’s start by answering the age old question—are leaders born or made and can leadership be taught and skills developed—and then we will discuss the three skills managerial leaders need to succeed. But first complete Self-Assessment 1-2 to deter- mine your managerial leadership skills.

are Leaders Born or Made? Are leaders born or made, or what determines leadership—nature or nurture? You may think this is a trick question, because most researchers say the answer is both. Effective leaders are not simply born or made. They are born with some leadership ability and develop it.41 So both perspectives add to the debate on the origins of leadership skills.42 Researchers estimate that 30 percent of leadership is heritable, whereas 70 percent is de- veloped.43 You will learn more about leadership traits (nature) in Chapter 2.

Some go so far as to say that leaders are definitely made, not born, and that everyone has equal potential to develop leadership skills (nurture). NFL Greenback Packers legend- ary football coach Vince Lombardi said, “Leaders are made, they are not born. They are made by hard effort.”44 Whatever your leadership ability is now, you can invest in devel- oping your leadership skills, or you can allow them to remain as they are now. We’ll talk more about this in the last section of this chapter.

Identify and define the managerial leadership skills.Learning outcome 2

Managerial Leadership SkillsSELF-ASSESSMENT 1-2

Rate each statement by how well the behavior describes you on a scale of 1–5. 1 2 3 4 5 Doesn’t describe me Describes me

1. I enjoy working with things.

2. I enjoy working with people.

3 I enjoy working with conceptual ideas.

4. I like to work with technical things like computers and equipment.

5. I like to figure out people’s feeling, atti- tudes, and motives.

6. I like to solve problems.

7. Following directions and procedures comes easy for me.

8. Getting along with a variety of people comes easy for me.

9. Analytical and quantitative reasoning comes easy for me

10. I’m good at getting a task done by the deadline.

11. I’m good at getting people to overcome conflict and work together.

12. I’m good at figuring out ways of overcom- ing barriers to get things done.

to determine your score, add up the numbers (1–5) for each skill and place them on the following lines. Each skill score should be between 5 and 20.

technical skill (items 1, 4, 7, 10) Interpersonal skill (items 2, 5, 8, 11) Decision-making skill (items 3, 6, 9, 12)

Your score for each skill is essentially a measure of your preference. As the first three questions ask, do you prefer working with things, people, or conceptual ideas, or are they equal? In this section, you will learn about these three skills and throughout the book you will be given the opportunity to develop your managerial leadership skills.

66352_ch01_ptg01_001-030.indd 8 10/15/14 12:47 PM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Chapter 1 Who IS A LEADER AND WhAt SkILLS Do LEADERS NEED? 9

Can Leadership Be taught and Skills Developed? Another question to answer is: Can leadership be taught and skills developed? Leadership is an individual capability.45 Research supports that leadership is learnable,46 that stu- dents can develop their leadership skills,47 including their knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA).48 As already discussed, why would colleges and corporations spend a great deal of effort and resources (billions of dollars) on leadership training if leadership skills can’t be developed?49 Also, as stated, self-assessments aid in leadership development.50 Leadership skills are developed through various forms of play, so it can be fun.51 Because leadership skills are so important, the focus of this book is on developing our skills.

Managerial Leadership Skills Now let’s discuss the three management skills that you need to be successful,52 as man- agement skills have been identified as a core competency.53 They are listed in Exhibit 1-2 and discussed here. We also point out the differences in the skills needed based on the level of management.

WORK Application 1-6 Do you believe that you are a born leader? Do you believe that you can develop your leadership skills to improve job performance?

Management Skills EXHIBIT 1.2

Decision Making Skills

(primarily concerned with conceptual ideas)

Interpersonal Skills (primarily concerned with people)

Technical Skills (primarily concerned with things)

Technical Skills technical skills involve the ability to use methods and techniques to perform a task. This includes knowledge about methods, processes, procedures, and techniques, and the abil- ity to use tools and equipment to perform a task. Technical skills can also be called busi- ness skills, or can include them.54 When managers are working on budgets, for example, they may need computer skills in order to use spreadsheet software such as Microsoft® Excel®. Most employees are promoted to their first management position primarily be- cause of their technical skills. Technical skills vary widely from job to job, and they are the easiest of the three management skills to develop.55 Therefore, we do not focus on developing technical skills.

© C

en ga

ge L

ea rn

in g®

66352_ch01_ptg01_001-030.indd 9 10/15/14 12:47 PM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

10 part 1 INDIVIDUALS AS LEADERS

Interpersonal Skills Interpersonal skills involve the ability to understand, communicate, and work well with individuals and groups through developing effective relationships. Interpersonal skills are also called human, people, and soft skills. As we interact with others, we are using our in- terpersonal skills.56 As discussed in our definition of leadership, relationships are critical to leadership success, and they are built on interpersonal skills.57 Unfortunately, college grads have been found lacking it their interpersonal skills.58Interpersonal skills are based on several other skills, including communicating, teamwork, power, politics, negotiating, networking, motivating, conflict, diversity, and ethical skills. We will discuss these inter- personal skills throughout the book, and you will have the opportunity to develop your interpersonal skills through this course.

Decision-Making Skills Decision-making skills are based on the ability to conceptualize situations and select al- ternatives to solve problems and take advantage of opportunities. It’s about how we reason and made decisions.59 It involves critical thinking,60 using a rational process,61 analyz- ing alternatives,62 and attempting to maximize positive outcomes for the organization.63 Clearly the decisions you have made over the years affect who you are today and your success.

Decision-making skills are based on several other skills, including conceptual, diag- nostic, analytical, critical-thinking, quantitative reasoning, and time management skills, as well as the ability to be creative, perceive trends, anticipate changes, and recognize problems and opportunities. We will discuss decision-making skills throughout the book, and you will have the opportunity to develop your decision-making skills through this course.

Skills Needed Based on Management Level Although managers need all three skills, the need for each skill does vary based on the level of management. Top-level managers have a greater need for interpersonal and deci- sion-making skills than technical skills. Middle-level managers have a balanced need for all three skills. First-level managers have a greater need for technical and interpersonal skills than decision-making skills. Complete Concept Application 1-1 to apply the man- agement skills.

WORK Application 1-7 Select a manager, preferably one who is or was your boss, and state the specific management skills he or she uses(used) on the job.

Managerial Leadership Skills Identify each activity as being one of the following types of management skills: a. technical b. interpersonal c. decision-making

1. A manager is trying to figure out why a delivery hasn’t been shipped out yet.

2. A manager is sending a text message from her smartphone.

3. A manager is making copies of a report he just finished at the copy machine downstairs.

4. A manager is praising an employee for a job well done.

5. A manager is determining the priority of orders to be filled next week.

CONCept APPLICATION 1-1

66352_ch01_ptg01_001-030.indd 10 10/15/14 12:47 PM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Chapter 1 Who IS A LEADER AND WhAt SkILLS Do LEADERS NEED? 11

3. What managerial leadership skills does CeO Jeff Bezos use at amazon?

Jeff Bezos has technical skills as he developed the first online bookstore as a high-tech pioneer. He continues to challenge his employees’ technical operations that expand the company performance and customer service. He also has interpersonal skills as he motivates employees to continually grow the business. Bezos clearly has decision-making skills as he is the one who has the conceptual ability to develop a successful business model and to continually change it to grow the company.

OPENING CASE Application

Leadership Managerial Roles In this section, we discuss what leaders do on the job—the management roles they play.64 You will notice an overlap between the skills and roles because the leader needs the com- petencies (knowledge, skills, and ability—KSAs) to enact the managerial roles.65 So we need to engage effectively in leadership roles.66

Henry Mintzberg identified ten managerial roles that leaders perform to accomplish organizational objectives.67 He grouped these roles into three categories. The manage- rial role categories are interpersonal, informational, and decisional. Exhibit 1.3 shows the ten managerial roles, based on the three categories.

List the ten managerial roles based on their three categories.Learning outcome 3

Interpersonal roles The interpersonal leadership roles include figurehead, leader, and liaison. Clearly, interpersonal skills are needed to successfully play interpersonal roles through managing interpersonal relationships.68

Leader Role The leader role is that of performing the management functions (planning, organizing, leading, and controlling) to effectively operate the managers’ unit to accomplish orga- nizational objectives.69 Therefore, the leader role influences how the leader performs the other roles. You will learn more about the leadership role throughout this book.

Figurehead Role Leaders perform the figurehead role when they represent the organization or depart- ment in legal, social, ceremonial, and symbolic activities. Here are some of the figure- head activities: signing official documents; entertaining clients or customers as official

Managerial Roles EXHIBIT 1.3

© C

en ga

ge L

ea rn

in g®

Interpersonal roles Informational roles Decisional roles

Leader Figurehead Liaison

Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson

Entrepreneur Disturbance- handler Resource-allocator Negotiator

66352_ch01_ptg01_001-030.indd 11 10/15/14 12:47 PM

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

12 part 1 INDIVIDUALS AS LEADERS

representatives and receiving/escorting official visitors; informally talking to people and attending outside meetings as an organizational representative; presiding at meetings and ceremonial events.

Liaison Role Leaders perform the liaison role when they interact with people outside their organiza- tional unit. Liaison behavior includes networking to develop and maintain relationships, serving on committees with members from outside the organizational unit, and attend- ing professional/trade association meetings.

Informational roles The informational leadership roles include monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson. Informational role success is also based on interpersonal skills.

Monitor Role Leaders perform the monitor role when they gather information by talking to others, reading (memos, reports, professional/trade publications, newspapers, etc.), attending meetings, visiting competitor facilities, and so forth.

Disseminator Role Leaders perform the disseminator role when they send information to others within the organizational unit. Using information translated into skills that advance the organiza- tion is now often being referred to as knowledge management.

Get Coursework Help In Your Essays, Assignments, Homeworks, Dissertation, Thesis Or Coursework

Professional And Experienced Writers - 24/7 Online Support

Similar Questions


  1. Answer my statistics question
  2. Questions on statistics with answers
  3. Statistics answers and questions
  4. Questions and answers in spanish
  5. 2 samuel questions and answers
  6. How to answer statistics questions
  7. Screenshot question and answer
  8. Statistics questions and answers
  9. Reading questions and answers
  10. Anatomical questions and answers
  11. Stat questions and answers
  12. Spanish questions and answers
  13. How to answer questions in spanish
  14. Two ways of seeing a river questions and answers
  15. Which of the following is a rhetorical question apex
  16. Read the text and answer the questions that follow
  17. Read the text and answer the questions in english
  18. Statistics math questions and answers
  19. Pathophysiology test questions and answers
  20. 13th movie reflection questions answers
  21. Answers to history questions
  22. Answer my chemistry question
  23. Disc questions and answers
  24. Mymathlab questions and answers
  25. Answer statistics questions online
  26. 13th documentary reflection questions answers
  27. History questions and answers 2020
  28. Antigone questions and answers
  29. Answers for history questions
  30. 1984 chapter questions and answers
  31. Answer any history question
  32. Historical questions and answers
  33. K12 question and answer
  34. 1984 comprehension questions and answers
  35. Free accounting questions and answers
  36. Pbi questions and answers
  37. Answers to mindtap questions
  38. Answer any chemistry question
  39. Homework questions and answers
  40. 13th movie questions and answers
  41. Bookkeeping questions and answers test
  42. Cda test questions and answers
  43. The metamorphosis questions and answers
  44. Inside out questions and answers
  45. The odyssey questions and answers
  46. Basic spanish questions and answers
  47. Frankenstein questions and answers
  48. Sonny's blues questions and answers
  49. History test questions and answers
  50. Iliad study questions and answers
Top Grade Tutor

ONLINE

Top Grade Writer

10374 Orders Completed

Top Academic Guru

ONLINE

Top Academic Guru

9345 Orders Completed

Top Essay Writer

ONLINE

Top Essay Writer

8379 Orders Completed

A-Grade Writer

ONLINE

A-Grade Writer

7812 Orders Completed

Get Help In Your Essays, Assignments, Homeworks, Dissertation, Thesis Or Coursework