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Organizational Behavior

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Organizational Behavior

15 Stephen P. Robbins —San Diego State University

Timothy A. Judge —University of Notre Dame

E D I T I O N

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Robbins, Stephen P. Organizational behavior / Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge. — 15th ed. p. cm. Includes indexes. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-283487-2 ISBN-10: 0-13-283487-1 1. Organizational behavior. I. Judge, Tim. II. Title.

HD58.7.R62 2012 658.3—dc23 2011038674

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 10: 0-13-283487-1 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-283487-2

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Brief Contents

The Individual

2 Diversity in Organizations 39 3 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 69 4 Emotions and Moods 97 5 Personality and Values 131 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making 165 7 Motivation Concepts 201 8 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications 239

The Group

9 Foundations of Group Behavior 271 10 Understanding Work Teams 307 11 Communication 335 12 Leadership 367 13 Power and Politics 411 14 Conflict and Negotiation 445 15 Foundations of Organization Structure 479

Preface xxii

v

Introduction

1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 3

vi BRIEF CONTENTS

Appendix A Research in Organizational Behavior 616

Comprehensive Cases 623

Indexes 637 Glindex 663

4 The Organization System 16 Organizational Culture 511 17 Human Resource Policies and Practices 543 18 Organizational Change and Stress Management 577

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Contents

Preface xxii

vii

Introduction

1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 3 The Importance of Interpersonal Skills 4

What Managers Do 5 Management Functions 6 • Management Roles 6 • Management Skills 8 • Effective versus Successful Managerial Activities 8 • A Review of the Manager’s Job 9

Enter Organizational Behavior 10

Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study 11

Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field 13 Psychology 14 • Social Psychology 14 • Sociology 14 • Anthropology 14

There Are Few Absolutes in OB 14

Challenges and Opportunities for OB 15 Responding to Economic Pressures 15 • Responding to Globalization 16 • Managing Workforce Diversity 18 • Improving Customer Service 18 • Improving People Skills 19 • Stimulating Innovation and Change 20 • Coping with “Temporariness” 20 • Working in Networked Organizations 20 • Helping Employees Balance Work–Life Conflicts 21 • Creating a Positive Work Environment 22 • Improving Ethical Behavior 22

Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model 23 An Overview 23 • Inputs 24 • Processes 25 • Outcomes 25

Summary and Implications for Managers 30

Self-Assessment Library How Much Do I Know About Organizational Behavior? 4 Myth or Science? “Most Acts of Workplace Bullying Are Men Attacking Women” 12 An Ethical Choice Can You Learn from Failure? 24 glOBalization! Does National Culture Affect Organizational Practices? 30 Point/Counterpoint Lost in Translation? 31

Questions for Review 32 Experiential Exercise Workforce Diversity 32 Ethical Dilemma Jekyll and Hyde 33 Case Incident 1 “Lessons for ‘Undercover’ Bosses” 34 Case Incident 2 Era of the Disposable Worker? 35

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2 The Individual 2 Diversity in Organizations 39

Diversity 40 Demographic Characteristics of the U.S. Workforce 41 • Levels of Diversity 42 • Discrimination 42

Biographical Characteristics 44 Age 44 • Sex 46 • Race and Ethnicity 48 • Disability 48 • Other Biographical Characteristics: Tenure, Religion, Sexual Orientation, and Gender Identity 50

Ability 52 Intellectual Abilities 52 • Physical Abilities 55 • The Role of Disabilities 56

Implementing Diversity Management Strategies 56 Attracting, Selecting, Developing, and Retaining Diverse Employees 56 • Diversity in Groups 58 • Effective Diversity Programs 58

Summary and Implications for Managers 60

Self-Assessment Library What’s My Attitude Toward Older People? 40 Myth or Science? “Dual-Career Couples Divorce Less” 47 An Ethical Choice Religious Tattoos 51 glOBalization! Images of Diversity from Around the Globe 54 Point/Counterpoint Men Have More Mathematical Ability Than Women 61

Questions for Review 62 Experiential Exercise Feeling Excluded 62 Ethical Dilemma Board Quotas 62 Case Incident 1 The Flynn Effect 63 Case Incident 2 Increasing Age Diversity in the Workplace 64

3 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 69 Attitudes 70 What Are the Main Components of Attitudes? 70 • Does Behavior Always Follow from Attitudes? 71 • What Are the Major Job Attitudes? 73

Job Satisfaction 78 Measuring Job Satisfaction 79 • How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? 80 • What Causes Job Satisfaction? 81 • The Impact of Satisfied and Dissatisfied Employees on the Workplace 82

Summary and Implications for Managers 88

Self-Assessment Library How Satisfied Am I with My Job? 70

An Ethical Choice Do Employers Owe Workers More Satisfying Jobs? 74 glOBalization! Culture and Work–Life Balance 76 Self-Assessment Library Am I Engaged? 78 Myth or Science? “Favorable Job Attitudes Make Organizations More Profitable” 83 Point/Counterpoint Employer–Employee Loyalty Is an Outdated Concept 87

Questions for Review 88 Experiential Exercise What Factors Are Most Important to Your Job Satisfaction? 89 Ethical Dilemma Bounty Hunters 89 Case Incident 1 Long Hours, Hundreds of E-Mails, and No Sleep: Does This Sound Like a Satisfying Job? 90 Case Incident 2 Crafting a Better Job 91

4 Emotions and Moods 97 What Are Emotions and Moods? 98 The Basic Emotions 100 • The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect 100 • The Function of Emotions 102 • Sources of Emotions and Moods 103

Emotional Labor 108

Affective Events Theory 110

Emotional Intelligence 112 The Case for EI 113 • The Case Against EI 114 • Emotion Regulation 115

OB Applications of Emotions and Moods 115 Selection 116 • Decision Making 116 • Creativity 116 • Motivation 117 • Leadership 117 • Negotiation 117 • Customer Service 118 • Job Attitudes 119 • Deviant Workplace Behaviors 119 • Safety and Injury at Work 119 • How Managers Can Influence Moods 120

Summary and Implications for Managers 121

Self-Assessment Library How Are You Feeling Right Now? 98 Self-Assessment Library What’s My Affect Intensity? 104 Myth or Science? We Are Better Judges of When Others Are Happy Than When They Are Sad 107

glOBalization! Should You Expect “Service with a Smile” All Around the World? 108 Self-Assessment Library What’s My Emotional Intelligence Score? 115 An Ethical Choice Schadenfreude 120 Point/Counterpoint Sometimes Blowing Your Top Is a Good Thing 122

Questions for Review 121 Experiential Exercise Who Can Catch a Liar? 123 Ethical Dilemma Happiness Coaches for Employees 123 Case Incident 1 Is It Okay to Cry at Work? 124 Case Incident 2 Can You Read Emotions from Faces? 124

5 Personality and Values 131 Personality 133 What Is Personality? 133 • The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 135 • The Big Five Personality Model 136 • Other Personality Traits Relevant to OB 139

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Values 144 The Importance of Values 144 • Terminal versus Instrumental Values 144 • Generational Values 145

Linking an Individual’s Personality and Values to the Workplace 148 Person–Job Fit 148 • Person–Organization Fit 150

International Values 150

Summary and Implications for Managers 154

Self-Assessment Library Am I a Narcissist? 132 Myth or Science? Personality Predicts the Performance of Entrepreneurs 142 glOBalization! The Right Personality for a Global Workplace 143 An Ethical Choice Should You Try to Change Someone’s Personality? 147 Point/Counterpoint Millennials Are More Narcissistic 155

Questions for Review 156 Experiential Exercise What Organizational Culture Do You Prefer? 156 Ethical Dilemma Freedom or Lack of Commitment? 156 Case Incident 1 Is There a Price for Being Too Nice? 157 Case Incident 2 Leadership from an Introvert’s Perspective 158

6 Perception and Individual Decision Making 165 What Is Perception? 166 Factors That Influence Perception 167

Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others 168 Attribution Theory 168 • Common Shortcuts in Judging Others 170 • Specific Applications of Shortcuts in Organizations 173

The Link Between Perception and Individual Decision Making 174

Decision Making in Organizations 175 The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition 175 • Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making 177

Influences on Decision Making: Individual Differences and Organizational Constraints 184 Individual Differences 184 • Organizational Constraints 186

What About Ethics in Decision Making? 187 Three Ethical Decision Criteria 187 • Improving Creativity in Decision Making 188

Summary and Implications for Managers 190

Self-Assessment Library What Are My Gender Role Perceptions? 166 glOBalization! Chinese Time, North American Time 171 Myth or Science? Creative Decision Making Is a Right-Brain Activity 181 Self-Assessment Library Am I A Deliberate Decision Maker? 183 An Ethical Choice Whose Ethical Standards to Follow? 185 Self-Assessment Library How Creative Am I? 190 Point/Counterpoint Checklists Lead to Better Decisions 191

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Questions for Review 192 Experiential Exercise Biases in Decision Making 193 Ethical Dilemma Do Unethical Decisions Come from Bad Character? 193 Case Incident 1 Computerized Decision Making 194 Case Incident 2 Predictions That Didn’t Quite Pan Out 195

7 Motivation Concepts 201 Defining Motivation 202

Early Theories of Motivation 203 Hierarchy of Needs Theory 203 • Theory X and Theory Y 205 • Two-Factor Theory 205 • McClelland’s Theory of Needs 207

Contemporary Theories of Motivation 208 Self-Determination Theory 208 • Job Engagement 211 • Goal-Setting Theory 212 • Self-Efficacy Theory 215 • Reinforcement Theory 218 • Equity Theory/Organizational Justice 219 • Expectancy Theory 224

Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation 226

Summary and Implications for Managers 228

Self-Assessment Library How Confident Am I in My Abilities to Succeed? 202 Myth or Science? “The Support of Others Improves Our Chances of Accomplishing Our Goals” 204

An Ethical Choice Motivated to Behave Unethically 209 glOBalization! Autonomy Needs Around the Globe 210 Self-Assessment Library What Are My Course Performance Goals? 214 Point/Counterpoint Fear Is a Powerful Motivator 229

Questions for Review 230 Experiential Exercise Goal-Setting Task 230 Ethical Dilemma The Big Easy? 230 Case Incident 1 It’s Not Fair! 231 Case Incident 2 Bullying Bosses 231

8 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications 239 Motivating by Job Design: The Job Characteristics Model 240 The Job Characteristics Model 240 • How Can Jobs Be Redesigned? 242 • Alternative Work Arrangements 245 • The Social and Physical Context of Work 249

Employee Involvement 250 Examples of Employee Involvement Programs 251 • Linking Employee Involvement Programs and Motivation Theories 252

Using Rewards to Motivate Employees 252 What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure 252 • How to Pay: Rewarding Individual Employees Through Variable-Pay Programs 253 • Flexible

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Benefits: Developing a Benefits Package 257 • Intrinsic Rewards: Employee Recognition Programs 259

Summary and Implications for Managers 261

Self-Assessment Library What’s My Job’s Motivating Potential? 240 Myth or Science? “CEO Pay Can’t Be Measured” 243 An Ethical Choice Identifying Conflicts of Interest 258 glOBalization! Motivated by Individual Goals or Relational Goals? 260 Point/Counterpoint “If Money Doesn’t Make You Happy, You Aren’t Spending It Right” 262

Questions for Review 263 Experiential Exercise Assessing Employee Motivation and Satisfaction Using the Job Characteristics Model 263 Ethical Dilemma Spitting Mad 264 Case Incident 1 Multitasking: A Good Use of Your Time? 264 Case Incident 2 Bonuses Can Backfire 265

3 The Group 9 Foundations of Group Behavior 271

Defining and Classifying Groups 272 Why Do People Form Groups? 272

Stages of Group Development 274 The Five-Stage Model 275 • An Alternative Model for Temporary Groups with Deadlines 276

Group Properties: Roles, Norms, Status, Size, Cohesiveness, and Diversity 277 Group Property 1: Roles 277 • Group Property 2: Norms 280 • Group Property 3: Status 285 • Group Property 4: Size 286 • Group Property 5: Cohesiveness 288 • Group Property 6: Diversity 288

Group Decision Making 290 Groups versus the Individual 290 • Groupthink and Groupshift 292 • Group Decision-Making Techniques 295

Summary and Implications for Managers 296

Self-Assessment Library Do I Have a Negative Attitude Toward Working in Groups? 272 Self-Assessment Library Do I Trust Others? 280 glOBalization! Forming International Teams in a Virtual World 291 Myth or Science? “Asians Have Less Ingroup Bias Than Americans” 292 An Ethical Choice Should You Use Group Peer Pressure? 294 Point/Counterpoint Affinity Groups Fuel Business Success 298

Questions for Review 297 Experiential Exercise Wilderness Survival 299 Ethical Dilemma Is Social Loafing Shirking? 300 Case Incident 1 Negative Aspects of Collaboration? 300 Case Incident 2 Herd Behavior and the Housing Bubble (and Collapse) 301

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10 Understanding Work Teams 307 Why Have Teams Become So Popular? 308

Differences Between Groups and Teams 309

Types of Teams 310 Problem-Solving Teams 310 • Self-Managed Work Teams 310 • Cross-Functional Teams 311 • Virtual Teams 312

Creating Effective Teams 312 Context: What Factors Determine Whether Teams Are Successful 313 • Team Composition 315 • Team Processes 319

Turning Individuals into Team Players 322 Selecting: Hiring Team Players 323 • Training: Creating Team Players 324 • Rewarding: Providing Incentives to Be a Good Team Player 324

Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer 324

Summary and Implications for Managers 325

Self-Assessment Library How Good Am I at Building and Leading a Team? 308 glOBalization! Group Cohesiveness across Cultures 314 An Ethical Choice Using Global Virtual Teams as an Environmental Choice 315 Myth or Science? “Teams Work Best Under Angry Leaders” 320 Self-Assessment Library What Is My Team Efficacy? 322 Point/Counterpoint We Can Learn Much About Work Teams from Studying Sports Teams 326

Questions for Review 327 Experiential Exercise Fixed versus Variable Flight Crews 327 Ethical Dilemma Unethical Teams 327 Case Incident 1 Why Don’t Teams Work Like They’re Supposed to? 328 Case Incident 2 Multicultural Multinational Teams at IBM 329

11 Communication 335 Functions of Communication 336

The Communication Process 338

Direction of Communication 338 Downward Communication 339 • Upward Communication 339 • Lateral Communication 339

Interpersonal Communication 340 Oral Communication 340 • Written Communication 341 • Nonverbal Communication 341

Organizational Communication 342 Formal Small-Group Networks 343 • The Grapevine 343 • Electronic Communications 345 • Managing Information 349

Choice of Communication Channel 350

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Persuasive Communications 351 Automatic and Controlled Processing 351 • Interest Level 352 • Prior Knowledge 352 • Personality 352 • Message Characteristics 352

Barriers to Effective Communication 353 Filtering 353 • Selective Perception 353 • Information Overload 353 • Emotions 353 • Language 354 • Silence 354 • Communication Apprehension 355 • Lying 355

Global Implications 356 Cultural Barriers 356 • Cultural Context 357 • A Cultural Guide 358

Summary and Implications for Managers 360

Self-Assessment Library Am I a Gossip? 336 An Ethical Choice The Ethics of Gossip at Work 345 Myth or Science? “We Know What Makes Good Liars Good” 356 glOBalization! How Direct Should You Be? 358 Point/Counterpoint Social Networking Is Good Business 359 Self-Assessment Library How Good Are My Listening Skills? 360

Questions for Review 360 Experiential Exercise An Absence of Nonverbal Communication 361 Ethical Dilemma Pitfalls of E-Mail 361 Case Incident 1 Using Social Media to Your Advantage 362 Case Incident 2 Should Companies That Fire Shoot First? 362

12 Leadership 367 What Is Leadership? 368

Trait Theories 369

Behavioral Theories 370 Summary of Trait Theories and Behavioral Theories 372

Contingency Theories 372 The Fiedler Model 373 • Other Contingency Theories 375

Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 377

Charismatic Leadership and Transformational Leadership 379 Charismatic Leadership 379 • Transformational Leadership 382

Authentic Leadership: Ethics and Trust 386 What Is Authentic Leadership? 386 • Ethics and Leadership 386 • Servant Leadership 387 • Trust and Leadership 387 • How Is Trust Developed? 389 • Trust as a Process 390 • What Are the Consequences of Trust? 390

Leading for the Future: Mentoring 391 Mentoring 391

Challenges to the Leadership Construct 393 Leadership as an Attribution 393 • Substitutes for and Neutralizers of Leadership 394 • Online Leadership 395

Finding and Creating Effective Leaders 396 Selecting Leaders 396 • Training Leaders 396

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Summary and Implications for Managers 397

Self-Assessment Library What’s My Leadership Style? 368 Self-Assessment Library What’s My LPC Score? 373 glOBalization! Cross-Cultural Leadership Styles 378 Self-Assessment Library How Charismatic Am I? 382 Self-Assessment Library Am I an Ethical Leader? 386 An Ethical Choice Do Leaders Have a Responsibility to Protect Followers? 388

Myth or Science? “Power Helps Leaders Perform Better” 392 Point/Counterpoint Heroes Are Made, Not Born 398

Questions for Review 399 Experiential Exercise What Is a Leader? 399 Ethical Dilemma Undercover Leaders 399 Case Incident 1 Leadership Mettle Forged in Battle 400 Case Incident 2 Leadership Factories 400

13 Power and Politics 411 A Definition of Power 412

Contrasting Leadership and Power 413

Bases of Power 414 Formal Power 414 • Personal Power 415 • Which Bases of Power Are Most Effective? 416 • Power and Perceived Justice 416

Dependence: The Key to Power 416 The General Dependence Postulate 416 • What Creates Dependence? 417

Power Tactics 418

Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace 421

Politics: Power in Action 424 Definition of Organizational Politics 424 • The Reality of Politics 424

Causes and Consequences of Political Behavior 426 Factors Contributing to Political Behavior 426 • How Do People Respond to Organizational Politics? 429 • Impression Management 430

The Ethics of Behaving Politically 434

Summary and Implications for Managers 435

Self-Assessment Library Is My Workplace Political? 412 glOBalization! Power Distance and Innovation 420 An Ethical Choice Should All Sexual Behavior Be Prohibited at Work? 423 Myth or Science? “Corporate Political Activity Pays” 428 Self-Assessment Library How Good Am I at Playing Politics? 430 Point/Counterpoint Power Corrupts People 436

Questions for Review 437 Experiential Exercise Understanding Power Dynamics 437 Ethical Dilemma Corporate Spying 438 Case Incident 1 Delegate Power, or Keep It Close? 438 Case Incident 2 The Persuasion Imperative 439

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14 Conflict and Negotiation 445 A Definition of Conflict 446

Transitions in Conflict Thought 447 The Traditional View of Conflict 447 • The Interactionist View of Conflict 447 • Resolution-Focused View of Conflict 449

The Conflict Process 449 Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility 450 • Stage II: Cognition and Personalization 451 • Stage III: Intentions 452 • Stage IV: Behavior 454 • Stage V: Outcomes 455

Negotiation 458 Bargaining Strategies 458 • The Negotiation Process 463 • Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness 464 • Third-Party Negotiations 467

Summary and Implications for Managers 469

Self-Assessment Library What’s My Preferred Conflict-Handling Style? 446 Myth or Science? “Communicating Well Is More Important in Cross-Cultural Negotiations” 462

glOBalization! Anger and Conflict Across Cultures 467 Self-Assessment Library What’s My Negotiating Style? 467 An Ethical Choice Using Empathy to Negotiate More Ethically 468 Point/Counterpoint Player–Owner Disputes Are Unnecessary 471

Questions for Review 472 Experiential Exercise A Negotiation Role-Play 472 Ethical Dilemma The Lowball Applicant 473 Case Incident 1 Choosing Your Battles 473 Case Incident 2 Mediation: Master Solution to Employment Disputes? 474

15 Foundations of Organization Structure 479 What Is Organizational Structure? 480 Work Specialization 480 • Departmentalization 482 • Chain of Command 483 • Span of Control 484 • Centralization and Decentralization 485 • Formalization 486

Common Organizational Designs 486 The Simple Structure 486 • The Bureaucracy 487 • The Matrix Structure 488

New Design Options 490 The Virtual Organization 490 • The Boundaryless Organization 492 • The Leaner Organization: Downsizing 494

Why Do Structures Differ? 496 Organizational Strategy 496 • Organization Size 498 • Technology 498 • Environment 499

Organizational Designs and Employee Behavior 501

Summary and Implications for Managers 502

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4 The Organization System 16 Organizational Culture 511

What Is Organizational Culture? 512 A Definition of Organizational Culture 512 • Culture Is a Descriptive Term 514 • Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? 514 • Strong versus Weak Cultures 514 • Culture versus Formalization 515

What Do Cultures Do? 516 Culture’s Functions 516 • Culture Creates Climate 516 • Culture as a Liability 517

Creating and Sustaining Culture 519 How a Culture Begins 519 • Keeping a Culture Alive 519 • Summary: How Cultures Form 523

How Employees Learn Culture 523 Stories 523 • Rituals 524 • Material Symbols 524 • Language 524

Creating an Ethical Organizational Culture 525

Creating a Positive Organizational Culture 527

Spirituality and Organizational Culture 529 What Is Spirituality? 529 • Why Spirituality Now? 530 • Characteristics of a Spiritual Organization 530 • Achieving a Spiritual Organization 531 • Criticisms of Spirituality 531

Global Implications 532

Summary and Implications for Managers 533

Self-Assessment Library What’s the Right Organizational Culture for Me? 512 glOBalization! Face Culture, Dignity Culture, and Organizational Culture 515 Myth or Science? “Employees Treat Customers the Same Way the Organization Treats Them” 518

An Ethical Choice Designing a Culture of Ethical Voice 526

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Self-Assessment Library Do I Like Bureaucracy? 480 Self-Assessment Library How Willing Am I to Delegate? 486 glOBalization! The Global Organization 489 An Ethical Choice Downsizing with a Conscience 496 Myth or Science? “Employees Resent Outsourcing” 500 Point/Counterpoint The End of Management 503

Questions for Review 504 Experiential Exercise Dismantling a Bureaucracy 504 Ethical Dilemma Directing the Directors 505 Case Incident 1 Creative Deviance: Bucking the Hierarchy? 506 Case Incident 2 Siemens’ Simple Structure—Not 506

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Self-Assessment Library How Spiritual Am I? 531 Point/Counterpoint Organizations Should Strive to Create a Positive Organizational Culture 534

Questions for Review 535 Experiential Exercise Rate Your Classroom Culture 535 Ethical Dilemma A Bankrupt Culture 536 Case Incident 1 Mergers Don’t Always Lead to Culture Clashes 536 Case Incident 2 Did Toyota’s Culture Cause Its Problems? 537

17 Human Resource Policies and Practices 543 Selection Practices 544 How the Selection Process Works 544 • Initial Selection 545 • Substantive Selection 546 • Contingent Selection 549 • International Variations in Selection Processes 550

Training and Development Programs 551 Types of Training 551 • Training Methods 553 • Evaluating Effectiveness 554

Performance Evaluation 554 What Is Performance? 555 • Purposes of Performance Evaluation 555 • What Do We Evaluate? 555 • Who Should Do the Evaluating? 556 • Methods of Performance Evaluation 558 • Suggestions for Improving Performance Evaluations 560 • Providing Performance Feedback 562 • International Variations in Performance Appraisal 563

Managing Work–Life Conflicts in Organizations 563

Summary and Implications for Managers 566

Self-Assessment Library How Much Do I Know About Human Resource Management (HRM)? 544

glOBalization! Performance Appraisal Around the World 558 An Ethical Choice Recruiting the Unemployed 561 Self-Assessment Library How Good Am I at Giving Performance Feedback? 563 Myth or Science? “Work Is Making Us Fat” 564 Point/Counterpoint Social Media Is a Great Source of New Hires 567

Questions for Review 568 Experiential Exercise Evaluating Performance and Providing Feedback 568 Ethical Dilemma Credit Checking 568 Case Incident 1 The End of the Performance Appraisal? 569 Case Incident 2 Job Candidates Without Strong SAT Scores Need Not Apply 570

18 Organizational Change and Stress Management 577 Forces for Change 578

Planned Change 580

Resistance to Change 580 Overcoming Resistance to Change 582 • The Politics of Change 584

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Approaches to Managing Organizational Change 584 Lewin’s Three-Step Model 584 • Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan for Implementing Change 586 • Action Research 587 • Organizational Development 587

Creating a Culture for Change 591 Stimulating a Culture of Innovation 591 • Creating a Learning Organization 593

Work Stress and Its Management 595 What Is Stress? 595 • Potential Sources of Stress 597 • Individual Differences 599 • Cultural Differences 600 • Consequences of Stress 601 • Managing Stress 602

Summary and Implications for Managers 606

Self-Assessment Library How Well Do I Respond to Turbulent Change? 578 Myth or Science? “Men Experience More Job Stress Than Women” 596 Self-Assessment Library How Stressful Is My Life? 600 An Ethical Choice Responsibly Managing Your Own Stress 601 glOBalization! Work–Family Stress in Different Cultures 604 Point/Counterpoint Responsible Managers Relieve Stress on Their Employees 607

Questions for Review 608 Experiential Exercise Power and the Changing Environment 608 Ethical Dilemma Changes at WPAC 609 Case Incident 1 Starbucks Returns to Its Roots 610 Case Incident 2 The Rise of Extreme Jobs 610

Appendix A Research in Organizational Behavior 616

Comprehensive Cases 623

Indexes 637 Glindex 663

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About the Authors

xx

Stephen P. Robbins

Education Ph.D. University of Arizona

Professional Experience Academic Positions: Professor, San Diego State University, Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville, University of Baltimore, Concordia University in Montreal, and University of Nebraska at Omaha.

Research: Research interests have focused on conflict, power, and politics in organizations, behavioral decision making, and the development of effective interpersonal skills.

Books Published: World’s best-selling author of textbooks in both management and organizational behavior. His books have sold more than 5 million copies and have been translated into 20 languages; editions have been adapted for Canada, Australia, South Africa, and India, such as these:

• Essentials of Organizational Behavior , 11th ed. (Prentice Hall, 2012) • Management , 11th ed. with Mary Coulter (Prentice Hall, 2012) • Fundamentals of Human Resource Management , 10th ed., with David DeCenzo

(Wiley, 2010) • Prentice Hall’s Self-Assessment Library 3.4 (Prentice Hall, 2010) • Fundamentals of Management , 8th ed., with David DeCenzo and Mary Coulter

(Prentice Hall, 2013) • Supervision Today! 7th ed., with David DeCenzo and Robert Wolter (Prentice

Hall, 2013) • Training in Interpersonal Skills: TIPS for Managing People at Work , 6th ed., with

Phillip Hunsaker (Prentice Hall, 2012) • Managing Today! 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall, 2000) • Organization Theory , 3rd ed. (Prentice Hall, 1990) • The Truth About Managing People , 2nd ed. (Financial Times/Prentice Hall,

2008) • Decide and Conquer: Make Winning Decisions and Take Control of Your Life

(Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2004).

Other Interests In his “other life,” Dr. Robbins actively participates in masters’ track compe- tition. Since turning 50 in 1993, he has won 18 national championships and 12 world titles. He is the current world record holder at 100 meters (12.37 seconds) and 200 meters (25.20 seconds) for men 65 and over.

Timothy A. Judge

Education Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Professional Experience Academic Positions: Franklin D. Schurz Chair, Department of Management, Mendoza College of Business, University of Notre Dame; Matherly-McKethan Eminent Scholar in Management, Warrington College of Business Administra- tion, University of Florida; Stanley M. Howe Professor in Leadership, Henry B. Tippie College of Business, University of Iowa; Associate Professor (with tenure), Department of Human Resource Studies, School of Industrial and Labor Rela- tions, Cornell University; Lecturer, Charles University, Czech Republic, and Co- menius University, Slovakia; Instructor, Industrial/Organizational Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Research: Dr. Judge’s primary research interests are in (1) personality, moods, and emotions; (2) job attitudes; (3) leadership and influence behaviors; and (4) careers (person–organization fit, career success). Dr. Judge has published more than 140 articles on these and other major topics in journals such as Jour- nal of Organizational Behavior, Personnel Psychology, Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, European Journal of Personality, and European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology .

Fellowship: Dr. Judge is a fellow of the American Psychological Association, the Academy of Management, the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and the American Psychological Society.

Awards: In 1995, Dr. Judge received the Ernest J. McCormick Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions from the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. In 2001, he received the Larry L. Cummings Award for mid-career contributions from the Organizational Behavior Division of the Academy of Management. In 2007, he received the Professional Practice Award from the Institute of Industrial and Labor Relations, University of Illinois.

Books Published: H. G. Heneman III, T. A. Judge, and J. D. Kammeyer-Mueller, Staffing Organizations, 7th ed. (Madison, WI: Mendota House/Irwin, 2011)

Other Interests Although he cannot keep up (literally!) with Dr. Robbin’s accomplishments on the track, Dr. Judge enjoys golf, cooking and baking, literature (he’s a particu- lar fan of Thomas Hardy and is a member of the Thomas Hardy Society), and keeping up with his three children, who range in age from 23 to 9.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS xxi

Preface

xxii

Welcome to the fifteenth edition of Organizational Behavior! Long considered the standard for all organizational behavior textbooks, this edition continues its tradition of making current, relevant research come alive for students. While maintaining its hallmark features—clear writing style, cutting-edge content, and engaging pedagogy—the fourteenth edition has been updated to reflect the most recent research within the field of organizational behavior. This is one of the most comprehensive and thorough revisions of Organizational Behavior we’ve un- dertaken, and while we’ve preserved the core material, we’re confident that this edition reflects the most important research and topical issues facing organiza- tions, managers, and employees.

Key Changes to the Fifteenth Edition • The most substantial updating ever. The following sections of each chapter

are new to the fifteenth edition: • Opening Vignette • Myth or Science? • Ethical Choice • Point/Counterpoint • Case Incident

• In addition, the following material is substantially revised and updated: • Case Incident (those not entirely new are revised and updated) • OB Poll (more than half are new to this edition) • Ethical Dilemma (more than half are new to this edition) • Photos/captions (more than half are new to this edition)

• New feature: glOBalization!, which features organizational behavior in an international context.

• Improved integration of global implications: With the explosion of interna- tional research, global OB research is now woven into each chapter, rather than in a stand-alone section at the end of the chapter.

• Revision to Summary and Implications for Managers section, with more focus on practical ways to apply the material on the job.

• NEW videos—up-to-date videos showing management topics in action, access to the complete management video library, as well as instructional materials for integrating clips from popular movies into your class, are at www.mymanagementlab.com .

Chapter-by-Chapter Changes Chapter 1 : What Is Organizational Behavior? • Entirely new Opening Vignette (The New Normal?) • New feature: glOBalization! • New Myth or Science? (“Most Acts of Workplace Bullying Are Men Attacking

Women”) • New OB Model, with better integration with pedagogy (structure) of book

www.mymanagementlab.com
• New Point–Counterpoint (Lost in Translation?) • New An Ethical Choice (Can You Learn from Failure?) • New Case Incident (Lessons for ‘Undercover’ Bosses ) • New Case Incident (Era of the Disposable Worker?)

Chapter 2 : Diversity in Organizations • Entirely new Opening Vignette (The Rise and Fall of Erin Callan) • New feature: glOBalization! • New Myth or Science? (“Dual-Career Couples Divorce Less”) • Enhanced coverage of stereotyping and discrimination research • Revised content regarding age discrimination and implications of an aging

workforce • Updates to discussion of disability in the workplace • Expanded coverage of sexual orientation discrimination • New material and integration of diversity with international/cultural diversity • New Point–Counterpoint (Men Have More Mathematical Ability Than Women) • New An Ethical Choice (Religious Tattoos) • New Case Incident (Increasing Age Diversity in the Workplace) • Updated Case Incident (The Flynn Effect)

Chapter 3 : Attitudes and Job Satisfaction • Entirely new Opening Vignette (What Does SAS Stand For?) • New feature: glOBalization! • New Myth or Science? (“Favorable Job Attitudes Make Organizations More

Profitable”) • Review of recent studies on within-person variation in job attitudes • New developments in organizational commitment • Updated material on organizational citizenship behaviors • New perspectives on attitudes and organizational performance • New ethical dilemma • New Point–Counterpoint (Employer–Employee Loyalty Is an Outdated

Concept) • New An Ethical Choice (Do Employers Owe Workers More Satisfying Jobs?) • New Case Incident (Crafting a Better Job) • Updated Case Incident (Long Hours, Hundreds of E-Mails, and No Sleep:

Does This Sound Like a Satisfying Job?)

Chapter 4 : Emotions and Moods • Entirely new Opening Vignette (Love at Work: Taboo No More?) • New feature: glOBalization! • New Myth or Science? (“We Are Better Judges of When Others Are Happy

Than When They Are Sad”) • Revised introduction to the topic • Review of research on moods and employee attachment • New section on “moral emotions” • Discussion of emotion regulation strategies and their consequences • New research on gender and emotions • Updated content on emotional displays at work • New section on Emotional Intelligence, with substantially more coverage and a

new exhibit • New Point–Counterpoint (Sometimes Blowing Your Top Is a Good Thing) • New An Ethical Choice (Schadenfreude) • New Case Incident (Is It Okay to Cry at Work?) • Updated Case Incident (Can You Read Emotions from Faces?)

PREFACE xxiii

Chapter 5 : Personality and Values • Entirely new Opening Vignette (Changing of the Guard in Japan: Is it the Econ-

omy, or the Values?) • New feature: glOBalization! • New Myth or Science? (“Personality Predicts the Performance of Entrepreneurs”) • Introduces concepts related to dispositional self- and other-orientation • New material regarding vocational choices • New discussion of values and reactions to violations of employee values • Major revision regarding Hofstede’s model of culture and its consequences • Updated information on personality and expatriate success • New Point–Counterpoint (Millennials Are More Narcissistic) • New An Ethical Choice (Should You Try to Change Someone’s Personality?) • New Case Incident (Leadership from an Introvert’s Perspective) • Updated Case Incident (Is There a Price for Being Too Nice?)

Chapter 6 : Perception and Individual Decision Making • Entirely new Opening Vignette (Do Machines Make Better Decisions?) • New feature: glOBalization! • New Myth or Science? (“Creative Decision Making Is a Right-Brain Activity”) • Review of recent work on self-serving biases • New information on stereotyping processes • Discussion of latest trends in decision errors research • Updated discussion of culture and perceptions • New section on Financial Decision Making and how it informs to understand

recent and current crises • New Experiential Exercise • New Point–Counterpoint (Checklists Lead to Better Decisions) • New An Ethical Choice (Whose Ethical Standards to Follow?) • New Case Incident (Computerized Decision Making) • Updated Case Incident (Predictions That Didn’t Quite Pan Out)

Chapter 7 : Motivation Concepts • Entirely new Opening Vignette (The Motivations of the 99ers) • New feature: glOBalization! • New Myth or Science? (“The Support of Others Improves Our Chances of

Accomplishing Our Goals”) • New material on psychological need theories • Increased discussion of employee engagement • Updates to the discussion on goal-setting theory • New perspectives on equity and organizational justice • New Point–Counterpoint (Fear Is a Powerful Motivator) • New An Ethical Choice (Motivated to Behave Unethically) • New Case Incident (It’s Not Fair!) • Updated Case Incident (Bullying Bosses)

Chapter 8 : Motivation: From Concepts to Applications • Entirely new Opening Vignette (Motivation Minus the Moolah) • New feature: glOBalization! • New Myth or Science? (“CEO Pay Can’t Be Measured”) • Updated discussion of job characteristics • New coverage of flextime, telecommuting, and related work practices • Revised discussion of employee empowerment and its effects • Discussion of innovations in gainsharing practices

xxiv PREFACE

PREFACE xxv

• New Point–Counterpoint (“If Money Doesn’t Make You Happy, You Aren’t Spending It Right”)

• New Case Incident (Bonuses Can Backfire) • Updated Case Incident (Multitasking: A Good Use of Your Time?)

Chapter 9 : Foundations of Group Behavior • Entirely new Opening Vignette (To the Clickers Go the Spoils) • New feature: glOBalization! • New Myth or Science? (“Asians Have Less Ingroup Bias Than Americans”) • New material on dysfunctional behavior in teams • Discussion of minority influence on group decision making • Introduces material on team mental models • Updated information on group decision errors and groupthink • New information on international variations in group behavior • New Point–Counterpoint (Affinity Groups Fuel Business Success) • New An Ethical Choice (Should You Use Group Peer Pressure?) • New Case Incident (Negative Aspects of Collaboration?) • Updated Case Incident (Herd Behavior and the Housing Bubble [and

Collapse])

Chapter 10 : Understanding Work Teams • Entirely new Opening Vignette (Killing bin Laden) • New feature: glOBalization! • New Myth or Science? (“Teams Work Best Under Angry Leaders”) • Updated discussion of strategies to improve team performance • Review of research on team decision-making strategies • New perspectives on creativity in teams • New material on team proactivity • Presents new literature on work teams in international contexts • New Point–Counterpoint (We Can Learn Much about Work Teams from

Studying Sports Teams) • New An Ethical Choice (Using Global Virtual Teams as an Environmental

Choice) • New Case Incident (Why Don’t Teams Work Like They’re Supposed To?) • Updated Case Incident (Multicultural Multinational Teams at IBM)

Chapter 11 : Communication • Entirely new Opening Vignette (Goldman Rules) • New feature: glOBalization! • New Myth or Science? (“We Know What Makes Good Liars Good”) • New section on Social Networking • New section on Persuasive Communication strategies • Discussion of how to frame messages for maximum impact • Discussion of the effects of authority, expertise, and liking on communica-

tion effectiveness • Updated discussion of body language in communication • Introduces new ideas about the effects of electronic communications • New Point–Counterpoint (Social Networking Is Good Business) • New An Ethical Choice (The Ethics of Gossip at Work) • New Case Incident (Using Social Media to Your Advantage) • Updated Case Incident (Should Companies That Fire Shoot First?)

xxvi PREFACE

Chapter 12 : Leadership • Entirely new Opening Vignette (Making Google’s Leaders) • New feature: glOBalization! • New Myth or Science? (“Power Helps Leaders Perform Better”) • Expanded discussion of leader effects on employee attitudes • New perspectives on culture and leadership • New material regarding emotional intelligence and leadership • Increased consideration of contemporary theories of leadership • Consideration of “servant leadership” • Discussion of how leaders can increase employee creativity • New Point–Counterpoint (Heroes Are Made, Not Born) • New An Ethical Choice (Do Leaders Have a Responsibility to Protect

Followers?) • New Case Incident (Leadership Mettle Forged in Battle) • Updated Case Incident (Leadership Factories)

Chapter 13 : Power and Politics • Entirely new Opening Vignette (Appearances Can Be Deceiving) • New feature: glOBalization! • New Myth or Science? (“Corporate Political Activity Pays”) • Coverage of latest research on influence tactics • Revised discussion of sexual harassment • Updated discussion of political behavior in organizations • Revision to international issues in power and politics • New Point–Counterpoint (Power Corrupts People) • New An Ethical Choice (Should All Sexual Behavior Be Prohibited at Work?) • New Case Incident (Delegate Power, or Keep it Close?) • Updated Case Incident (The Persuasion Imperative)

Chapter 14 : Conflict and Negotiation • Entirely new Opening Vignette (No Conflict at the Post Office. . . Is That

Good?) • New feature: glOBalization! • New Myth or Science? (“Communicating Well Is More Important in Cross-

Cultural Negotiations”) • Updated material on gender and negotiation styles • New material on individual differences in negotiation styles • Discussion of emotions in negotiation • New information on suspicion and deception in negotiation • Updates to discussion on conflict and conflict management processes • New Point–Counterpoint (Player–Owner Disputes Are Unnecessary) • New An Ethical Choice (Using Empathy to Negotiate More Ethically) • New Case Incident (Choosing Your Battles) • Updated Case Incident (Mediation: Master Solution to Employment

Disputes?)

Chapter 15 : Foundations of Organization Structure • Entirely new Opening Vignette (Dismantling a Bureaucracy) • New feature: glOBalization! • New Myth or Science? (“Employees Resent Outsourcing”) • Latest research on boundaryless organizations and their functioning • Discussion of technology’s influence on organizational structure

PREFACE xxvii

• Updated review of the relationship between organizational structure and attitudes

• New An Ethical Choice (Downsizing with a Conscience) • New Case Incident (Creative Deviance: Bucking the Hierarchy?) • Updated Case Incident (Siemens’ Simple Structure—Not)

Chapter 16 : Organizational Culture • Entirely new Opening Vignette (Ursula M. Burns and the Culture of Xerox) • New feature: glOBalization! • New Myth or Science? (“Employees Treat Customers the Same Way the

Organization Treats Them”) • New review of basic issues in organizational culture and subcultures • Enhanced discussion of ethical culture • Review of culture and organizational performance • Revised discussion of organizational socialization practices and outcomes • New Point–Counterpoint (Organizations Should Strive to Create a Positive

Organizational Culture) • New An Ethical Choice (Designing a Culture of Ethical Voice) • New Case Incident (Did Toyota’s Culture Cause Its Problems?) • Updated Case Incident (Mergers Don’t Always Lead to Culture Clashes)

Chapter 17 : Human Resource Policies and Practices • Entirely new Opening Vignette (Testing NFL Quarterbacks) • New feature: glOBalization! • New Myth or Science? (“Work Is Making Us Fat”) • Discussion of the implications of the Great Recession • New material on legal issues • Updated discussion of the effects of high performance work practice on

employee attitudes and behavior • Expanded discussion of the effects of staffing decisions on employee

turnover • New section on Job Performance and Workplace Civility • New material related to performance appraisals and rater goals • New Point–Counterpoint (Social Media Is a Great Source of New Hires) • New An Ethical Choice (Recruiting the Unemployed) • New Case Incident (The End of the Performance Appraisal?) • Updated Case Incident (Job Candidates Without Strong SAT Scores Need

Not Apply)

Chapter 18 : Organizational Change and Stress Management • Entirely new Opening Vignette (Sweet Changes at Cadbury?) • New feature: glOBalization! • New Myth or Science? (“Men Experience More Job Stress Than Women”) • Updated review of research on individual readiness for organizational

change • Discussion of maladaptive behavioral response to stress at work • Updated discussion of coping strategies • Implications of the stress-health relationship • New Point–Counterpoint (Responsible Managers Relieve Stress on Their

Employees) • New An Ethical Choice (Responsibly Managing Your Own Stress) • New Case Incident (Starbucks Returns to Its Roots) • Updated Case Incident (The Rise of Extreme Jobs)

xxviii PREFACE

Teaching and Learning Support MyManagementLab ( www.mymanagementlab.com ) is an easy-to-use online tool that personalizes course content and provides robust assessment and re- porting to measure student and class performance. All the resources you need for course success are in one place—flexible and easily adapted for your course experience.

Instructor’s Resource Center At www.pearsonhighered.com/irc , instructors can access a variety of print, digi- tal, and presentation resources available with this text in downloadable format. Registration is simple and gives you immediate access to new titles and new editions. As a registered faculty member, you can download resource files and receive immediate access and instructions for installing course management content on your campus server.

If you need assistance, our dedicated technical support team is ready to help with the media supplements that accompany this text. Visit 247pearsoned .custhelp.com for answers to frequently asked questions and toll-free user support phone numbers.

The following supplements are available to adopting instructors (for detailed descriptions, please visit www.pearsonhighered.com/irc ):

• Instructor’s Manual—updated and revised to provide ideas and resources in the classroom.

• Test Item File—Revised and updated to include questions that require stu- dents to apply the knowledge that they’ve read about in the text through Learning Objectives and Learning Outcomes. Questions are also tagged to reflect the AACSB Learning Standards.

• TestGen Test Generating Software—Test management software that con- tains all material from the Test Item File. This software is completely user- friendly and allows instructors to view, edit, and add test questions with just a few mouse clicks. All of our TestGens are converted for use in Blackboard and WebCT and are available for download from www.pearsonhighered .com/irc.

• PowerPoint Presentation—A ready-to-use PowerPoint slideshow designed for classroom presentation. Use it as is, or edit content to fit your individual classroom needs.

• Image Library—includes all the charts, tables, and graphs that are found in the text.

Videos on DVD Adopters can access the 48 videos on the 2013 Organizational Behavior Video Library DVD. These videos have been produced to depict real-world OB issues and give students a taste of the multi-faceted nature of OB in real companies.

Learning Management Systems BlackBoard and WebCT Course Cartridges are available for download from www.pearsonhighered.com/irc. These standard course cartridges contain the Instructor’s Manual, TestGen, Instructor PowerPoints, and when available, Stu- dent PowerPoints and Student Data Files.

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www.pearsonhighered.com/irc
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PREFACE xxix

CourseSmart eTextbooks Online Developed for students looking to save money on required or recommended text- books, CourseSmart eTextbooks online save students money compared with the suggested list price of the print text. Students simply select their eText by title or author and purchase immediate access to the content for the duration of the course using any major credit card. With CourseSmart eText, students can search for specific keywords or page numbers, make notes online, print reading assign- ments that incorporate lecture notes, and bookmark important passages for later review. For more information, or to purchase a CourseSmart eTextbook, visit www.coursesmart.com .

Pearson’s Self-Assessment Library (S.A.L.) A hallmark of the Robbins series, S.A.L. is a unique learning tool that allows you to assess your knowledge, beliefs, feelings, and actions in regard to a wide range of personal skills, abilities, and interests. Self-assessments have been integrated into each chapter, including a self-assessment at the beginning of each chapter. S.A.L. helps students better understand their interpersonal and behavioral skills as they relate to the theoretical concepts presented in each chapter.

Highlights • 69 research-based self-assessments —All 69 instruments of our collection are

from sources such as Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, Harvard Business Review, Organizational Behavior: Experiences and Cases, Journal of Experimental Education, Journal of Applied Measurement, and more.

• Work–life and career focused —All self-assessments are focused to help indi- viduals better manage their work lives or careers. Organized in four parts, these instruments offer you one source from which to learn more about yourself.

• Choice of formats —The Prentice Hall Self-Assessment Library is available in CD-ROM, online, or print format.

• Save feature —Students can take the self-assessments an unlimited number of times, and they can save and print their scores for class discussion.

• Scoring key —The key to the self-assessments has been edited by Steve Robbins to allow students to quickly make sense of the results of their score.

• Instructor’s manual —An Instructor’s Manual guides instructors in interpret- ing self-assessments and helps facilitate better classroom discussion.

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Acknowledgments

Getting this book into your hands was a team effort. It took faculty reviewers and a talented group of designers and production specialists, editorial per- sonnel, and marketing and sales staff.

More than one hundred instructors reviewed parts or all of Organizational Behavior, Fifteenth Edition. Their comments, compliments, and suggestions have significantly improved the final product. The authors wish to thank John D. Kammeyer-Mueller of the University of Florida for help with several key aspects of this revision. The authors would also like to extend their sincerest thanks to the following instructors:

xxx

Lee Boam , University of Utah Andres Johnson , Santa Clara University Edward Lisoski , Northeastern University Douglas Mahony , Lehigh University Douglas McCabe , Georgetown University Bradley Norris , Baylor University Jonelle Roth , Michigan State University

Philip Roth , Clemson University Dale Rude , University of Houston Holly Schroth , University of California at Berkeley Jody Tolan , University of Southern California Debra Schneck , Indiana University Marilyn Wesner , George Washington University

Over the last editions this text has grown stronger with the contribution and feedback of the following instructors:

David Abramis , California State University Chris Adalikwu , Concordia College Basil Adams , Notre Dame de Namur University

Janet Adams , Kennesaw State University Cheryl Adkins , Longwood College Vicky Aitken , St. Louis Community College David Albritton , Northern Arizona University Bradley Alge , Purdue University Lois Antonen , CSUS Lucy Arendt , University of Wisconsin, Green Bay Anke Arnaud , University of Central Florida Mihran Aroian , University of Texas, Austin Gary Ballinger , Purdue University Deborah Balser , University of Missouri at St. Louis

Christopher Barlow , DePaul University Joy Benson , University of Wisconsin at Green Bay

Lehman Benson III , University of Arizona Jacqui Bergman , Appalachian State University

Anne Berthelot , University of Texas at El Paso

David Bess , Shidler College of Business at the University of Hawaii

Bruce Bikle , California State University, Sacramento

Richard Blackburn , University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill Weldon Blake , Bethune-Cookman College Carl Blencke , University of Central Florida Michael Bochenek , Elmhurst College Alicia Boisnier , State University of New York William H. Bommer , Cleveland State University Bryan Bonner , University of Utah Jessica Bradley , Clemson University Dr. Jerry Bream , Empire State College/ Niagara Frontier Center Jim Breaugh , University of Missouri Peggy Brewer , Eastern Kentucky University Deborah Brown , North Carolina State University Reginald Bruce , University of Louisville Jeff Bruns , Bacone College Pamela Buckle , Adelphi University Patricia Buhler , Goldey-Beacom College Allen Bures , Radford University Edith Busija , University of Richmond Holly Buttner , University of North Carolina at Greensboro Michael Cafferky , Southern Adventist University Scott Campbell , Francis Marion University Elena Capella , University of San Francisco

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxxi

Don Capener , Monmouth University Dan Caprar , University of Iowa David Carmichael , Oklahoma City University Carol Carnevale , SUNY Empire State College Donald W. Caudill , Bluefield College Suzanne Chan , Tulane University Anthony Chelte , Midwestern State University Bongsoon Cho , State University of New York—Buffalo Savannah Clay , Central Piedmont Community College David Connelly , Western Illinois State University Jeffrey Conte , San Diego State University Jane Crabtree , Benedictine University Suzanne Crampton , Grand Valley State University Douglas Crawford , Wilson College Michael Cruz , San Jose State University Robert Cyr , Northwestern University Evelyn Dadzie , Clark Atlanta University Joseph Daly , Appalachian State University Denise Daniels , Seattle Pacific University Marie Dasborough , Oklahoma State University Nancy Da Silva , San Jose State University Christine Day , Eastern Michigan University Emmeline de Pillis , University of Hawaii, Hilo Kathy Lund Dean , Idaho State University Roger Dean , Washington & Lee University Robert DelCampo , University of New Mexico Kristen Detienne , Brigham Young University Doug Dierking , University of Texas at Austin Cynthia Doil , Southern Illinois University Jennifer Dose , Messiah College Ceasar Douglas , Florida State University David Duby , Liberty University Ken Dunegan , Cleveland State University Michael Dutch , Greensboro College Kathleen Edwards , University of Texas at Austin Berrin Erdogan , Portland State University Ellen Fagenson Eland , George Mason University Lenny Favara , Central Christian College Claudia Ferrante , U.S. Air Force Academy Andy Fitorre , Nyack College Kathleen Fleming , Averett University Erin Fluegge , University of Florida Edward Fox , Wilkes University Alison Fragale , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Lucy Franks , Bellevue University Dean Frear , Wilkes University

Jann Freed , Central College Crissie Frye , Eastern Michigan University Diane Galbraith , Slippery Rock University Carolyn Gardner , Radford University Janice Gates , Western Illinois University Ellen Kaye Gehrke , Alliant International University James Gelatt , University of Maryland University College Joe Gerard , University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee Matthew Giblin , Southern Illinois University Donald Gibson , Fairfield University Cindi Gilliland , The University of Arizona Mary Giovannini , Truman State University David Glew , University of North Carolina at Wilmington Leonard Glick , Northeastern University Reginald Goodfellow , California State University Jeffrey Goldstein , Adelphi University Jodi Goodman , University of Connecticut Claude Graeff , Illinois State University Richard Grover , University of Southern Maine W. Lee Grubb III , East Carolina University John Guarino , Averett University Rebecca Guidice , University of Nevada at Las Vegas Andra Gumbus , Sacred Heart University Linda Hackleman , Concordia University Austin Deniz Hackner , Tidewater Community College Michael Hadani , Long Island University Jonathon Halbesleben , University of Missouri-Columbia Dan Hallock , University of North Alabama Tracey Rockett Hanft , University of Texas at Dallas Edward Hampton , University of Central Florida Vernard Harrington , Radford University Nell Hartley , Robert Morris University Barbara Hassell , Indiana University, Kelley School of Business Erin Hayes , George Washington University Tom Head , Roosevelt University Douglas Heeter , Ferris State University David Henderson , University of Illinois at Chicago Scott Henley , Oklahoma City University Ted Herbert , Rollins College Susan Herman , University of Alaska Fairbanks James Hess , Ivy Tech Community College Ronald Hester , Marymount University

Patricia Hewlin , Georgetown University Chad Higgins , University of Washington Kim Hinrichs , Minnesota State University Mankato Kathie Holland , University of Central Florida Elaine Hollensbe , University of Cincinnati Kristin Holmberg-Wright , University of Wisconsin at Parkside Brooks Holtom , Georgetown University Lisa Houts , California State University Fullerton Abigail Hubbard , University of Houston Paul Hudec , Milwaukee School of Engineering Stephen Humphrey , Florida State University Charlice Hurst , University of Florida Warren Imada , Leeward Community College Gazi Islam , Tulane University Alan Jackson , Peru State College Christine Jackson , Purdue University Marsha Jackson , Bowie State University Kathryn Jacobson , Arizona State University Paul Jacques , Western Carolina University David Jalajas , Long Island University Elizabeth Jamison , Radford University Stephen Jenner , California State University, Dominguez Hills John Jermier , University of South Florida Jack Johnson , Consumnes River College Michael Johnson , University of Washington David Jones , South University Ray Jones , University of Pittsburgh Anthony Jost , University of Delaware Louis Jourdan , Clayton College Rusty Juban , Southeastern Illinois University Carole L. Jurkiewicz , Louisiana State University John Kammeyer-Mueller , University of Florida Edward Kass , Saint Joseph’s University Marsha Katz , Governors State College James Katzenstein , California State University John Keiser , SUNY College at Brockport Mark Kendrick , Methodist University Mary Kern , Baruch College Robert Key , University of Phoenix Sigrid Khorram , University of Texas at El Paso Hal Kingsley , Erie Community College Jeffrey Kobles , California State University San Marcos Jack Kondrasuk , University of Portland Leslie A. Korb , University of Nebraska at Kearney Glen Kreiner , University of Cincinnati

James Kroeger , Cleveland State University Frederick Lane , Baruch College Rebecca Lau , Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University David Leuser , Plymouth State College Julia Levashina , Indiana State University Kokomo Benyamin Lichtenstein , University of Massachusetts at Boston Robert Liden , University of Illinois at Chicago Don Lifton , Ithaca College Ginamarie Ligon , Villanova University Beth Livingston , University of Florida Barbara Low , Dominican University Doyle Lucas , Anderson University Alexandra Luong , University of Minnesota Rick Maclin , Missouri Baptist University Peter Madsen , Brigham Young University Lou Marino , University of Alabama Catherine Marsh , Northpark University J. David Martin , Midwestern State University Timothy A. Matherly , Florida State University John Mattoon , State University of New York Paul Maxwell , Saint Thomas University Brenda McAleer , University of Maine at Augusta Christina McCale , Regis College Don McCormick , California State University Northridge James McElroy , Iowa State University Bonnie McNeely , Murray State University Melony Mead , University of Phoenix Steven Meisel , La Salle University Nancy Meyer-Emerick , Cleveland State University Catherine Michael , St. Edwards University Sandy Miles , Murray State University Janice Miller , University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee Leann Mischel , Susquehanna University Atul Mitra , University of Northern Iowa Linda Morable , Richland College Paula Morrow , Iowa State University Mark Mortensen , Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lori Muse , Western Michigan University Padmakumar Nair , University of Texas at Dallas Judy Nixon , University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Jeffrey Nystrom , University of Colorado at Denver Alison O’Brien , George Mason University Heather Odle-Dusseau , Clemson University Miguel Olivas-Lujan , Lujan Clarion University

xxxii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxxiii

Kelly Ottman , University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee

Cynthia Ozeki , California State University, Dominguez Hills

Peg Padgett , Butler University Jennifer Palthe , Western Michigan University Dennis Passovoy , University of Texas at Austin

Karen Paul , Florida International University Laura Finnerty Paul , Skidmore College Anette Pendergrass , Arkansas State University at Mountain Home

Bryan Pesta , Cleveland State University Jeff Peterson , University of Washington Nanette Philibert , Missouri Southern State University

Larry Phillips , Indiana University South Bend William Pinchuk , Rutgers University at Camden

Eric Popkoff , Brooklyn College Paul Preston , University of Montevallo Scott Quatro , Grand Canyon University Aarti Ramaswami , Indiana University Bloomington

Jere Ramsey , Cal Poly at San Luis Obispo Amy Randel , San Diego State University Anne Reilly , Loyola University Chicago Clint Relyea , Arkansas State University Herbert Ricardo , Indian River Community College

David Ritchey , University of Texas at Dallas Chris Roberts , University of Massachusetts Amherst

Sherry Robinson , Pennsylvania State University Hazleton

Christopher Ann Robinson-Easley , Governors State University

Joe Rode , Miami University Bob Roller , LeTourneau University Andrea Roofe , Florida International University

Craig Russell , University of Oklahoma at Norman

Manjula Salimath , University of North Texas Mary Saunders , Georgia Gwinnett College Andy Schaffer , North Georgia College and State University

Elizabeth Scott , Elizabeth City University Mark Seabright , Western Oregon University Joseph Seltzer , LaSalle University John Shaw , Mississippi State University John Sherlock , Western Carolina University Daniel Sherman , University of Alabama, Huntsville

Heather Shields , Texas Tech University

Ted Shore , California State University at Long Beach

Stuart Sidle , University of New Haven Bret Simmons , University of Nevada Reno Randy Sleeth , Virginia Commonwealth University

William Smith , Emporia State University Kenneth Solano , Northeastern University Shane Spiller , Morehead State University Lynda St. Clair , Bryant University John B. Stark , California State University, Bakersfield

Merwyn Strate , Purdue University Joo-Seng Tan , Cornell University Karen Thompson , Sonoma State University Linda Tibbetts , Antioch University McGregor

Ed Tomlinson , John Carroll University Bob Trodella , Webster University Tom Tudor , University of Arkansas at Little Rock

William D. Tudor , Ohio State University Daniel Turban , University of Missouri Albert Turner , Webster University Jim Turner , Morehead State University Leslie Tworoger , Nova Southeastern University

M. A. Viets , University of Vermont Roger Volkema , American University William Walker , University of Houston Ian Walsh , Boston College Charles F. Warren , Salem State College Christa Washington , Saint Augustine’s College

Jim Westerman , Appalachian State University William J. White , Northwestern University David Whitlock , Southwest Baptist University Dan Wiljanen , Grand Valley State University Dean Williamson , Brewton-Parker College Hilda Williamson , Hampton University Alice Wilson , Cedar Crest College Barry Wisdom , Southeast Missouri State University

Craig Wishart , Fayetteville State University Laura Wolfe , Louisiana State University Melody Wollan , Eastern Illinois University Evan Wood , Taylor University Fort Wayne Chun-Sheng Yu , University of Houston- Victoria

Jun Zhao , Governors State University Lori Ziegler , University of Texas at Dallas Mary Ellen Zuckerman , State University of New York at Geneseo

Gail Zwart , Riverside Community College

xxxiv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We owe a debt of gratitude to all those at Pearson Education who have sup- ported this text over the past 30 years and who have worked so hard on the de- velopment of this latest edition. On the development and editorial side, we want to thank Elisa Adams, Development Editor; Steve Deitmer, Director of Develop- ment; Ashley Santora, Director of Editorial Services; Brian Mickelson, Acquisi- tions Editor; and Sally Yagan, Editorial Director. On the design and production side, Judy Leale, Senior Managing Editor, did an outstanding job, as did Becca Groves, Production Project Manager, and Nancy Moudry, Photo Development Editor. Last but not least, we would like to thank Nikki Ayana Jones, Senior Marketing Manager; Patrice Lumumba Jones, Vice President Director of Market- ing; and their sales staff, who have been selling this book over its many editions. Thank you for the attention you’ve given to this book.

Organizational Behavior

THE NEW NORMAL?

2

S cott Nicholson sits alone in his parents’ house in suburban Boston. His parents have long since left for work. He lifts his laptop from a small table on which his mother used to have a vase with flowers. This day will be like tomorrow, and tomorrow will be like today.

On his laptop, Scott searches corporate Web sites for job openings.

Today, he finds one, and he mails off a résumé and cover letter. It’s a rou-

tine he repeats nearly every day, applying to four to five jobs a week, week

after week.

Despite graduating from Colgate University with a 4.0 GPA, Scott has

been job-hunting for 5 months. His myriad applications have produced only

one offer: A $40,000-a-year job as an associate claims adjuster at Hanover

Insurance Group in Worcester. He turned the offer down. “The conversation

I’m going to have with my parents now that I’ve turned down this job is more

of a concern to me than turning down the job,” Scott said.

Why is Scott more concerned with his parents’ reaction than he is with

finding a job? To some degree, this is a reflection of the job offer (too low

a salary, too small a company, too limited a job description). However, it

also suggests a generational shift in thinking. While the job market for new

entrants is perhaps the most sluggish in memory, new college graduates

remain committed to following their dreams and holding out high hopes for

their careers.

Scott’s father, David Nicholson, 57, has an established managerial career,

with a household income of $175,000/year. Early in his career, David said,

he was less concerned with starting off with the right job than his son is

now. “You maneuvered and you did not worry what the maneuvering would

lead to,” David said. “You know it would lead to something good.” Scott’s

grandfather, William Nicholson, a retired stock broker, has even more trou-

ble understanding Scott’s travails. “I view what is happening to Scott with

dismay,” the grandfather said. Despite feeling pressure from his parents to

find a job (“I am beginning to realize that refusal is going to have repercus-

sions”), Scott remains undaunted: “I am absolutely certain that my job hunt

will eventually pay off.”

Scott is not alone. In the past 5 years, millions of U.S. workers have lost

their jobs, and millions of new entrants—many of them, like Scott, under 30—

have had trouble finding suitable work.

Sources: L. Uchitelle, “A New Generation, an Elusive American Dream” New York Times (July 7, 2010), pp. A1, A11; B. Levin, “Sending Out an S.O.S.: Who Will Give This a Handout/Job?” Dealbreaker (July 7, 2010), http://dealbreaker.com/tag/scott-nicholson/ .

LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

1 Demonstrate the importance of interpersonal skills in the workplace.

2 Describe the manager’s functions, roles, and skills.

3 Define organizational behavior ( OB ).

4 Show the value to OB of systematic study.

5 Identify the major behavioral science disciplines that contribute to OB.

6 Demonstrate why few absolutes apply to OB.

7 Identify the challenges and opportunities managers have in applying OB concepts.

8 Compare the three levels of analysis in this book’s OB model.

MyManagementLab Access a host of interactive learning aids to help strengthen your understanding of the chapter concepts at www.mymanagementlab.com

www.mymanagementlab.com
http://dealbreaker.com/tag/scott-nicholson/
What Is Organizational

Behavior? 1 The stellar universe is not so difficult of comprehension as the real actions

of other people. —Marcel Proust

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4 CHAPTER 1 What Is Organizational Behavior?

T he details of this story might be disheartening to read, but they accurately reflect some of the problems faced by the contemporary workforce. The story also highlights several issues of interest to organizational behavior researchers, including motivation, emotions, personality, and communication. Through the course of this book, you’ll learn how all these elements can be studied systematically.

You’ve probably made many observations about people’s behavior in your life. In a way, you are already proficient at seeing some of the major themes in organizational behavior. At the same time, you probably have not had the tools to make these observations systematically. This is where organizational behavior comes into play. And, as we’ll learn, it is much more than common sense, intu- ition, and soothsaying.

To see how far common sense gets you, try the following from the Self- Assessment Library.

S A L SELF-ASSESSMENT LIBRARY

How Much Do I Know About Organizational Behavior?

In the Self-Assessment Library (available on CD and online), take assessment IV.G.1 (How Much Do I Know About OB?) and answer the following questions:

1. How did you score? Are you surprised by your score? 2. How much of effective management do you think is common sense? Did

your score on the test change your answer to this question?

1 Demonstrate the impor- tance of interpersonal skills

in the workplace.

Until the late 1980s, business school curricula emphasized the technical aspects of management, focusing on economics, accounting, finance, and quantitative techniques. Course work in human behavior and people skills received rela- tively less attention. Over the past three decades, however, business faculty have come to realize the role that understanding human behavior plays in determin- ing a manager’s effectiveness, and required courses on people skills have been added to many curricula. As the director of leadership at MIT’s Sloan School of Management put it, “M.B.A. students may get by on their technical and quan- titative skills the first couple of years out of school. But soon, leadership and communication skills come to the fore in distinguishing the managers whose careers really take off.” 1

Developing managers’ interpersonal skills also helps organizations attract and keep high-performing employees. Regardless of labor market conditions, outstanding employees are always in short supply. 2 Companies known as good places to work—such as Starbucks, Adobe Systems, Cisco, Whole Foods, Google, American Express, Amgen, Pfizer, and Marriott—have a big advantage. A recent survey of hundreds of workplaces, and more than 200,000 respondents, showed the social relationships among co-workers and supervisors were strongly related to overall job satisfaction. Positive social relationships also were associated with lower stress at work and lower intentions to quit. 3 So having managers with good interpersonal skills is likely to make the workplace more pleasant, which in turn makes it easier to hire and keep qualified people. Creating a pleasant work- place also appears to make good economic sense. Companies with reputations

The Importance of Interpersonal Skills

What Managers Do 5

as good places to work (such as Forbes’ “100 Best Companies to Work For in America”) have been found to generate superior financial performance. 4

We have come to understand that in today’s competitive and demanding workplace, managers can’t succeed on their technical skills alone. They also have to have good people skills. This book has been written to help both man- agers and potential managers develop those people skills.

Succeeding in management today requires good interpersonal skills.

Communication and leadership skills distinguish managers such as

John Chambers, who rise to the top of their profession. Chambers

is CEO of Cisco Systems, the world’s largest maker of networking equip- ment. He is respected as a visionary

leader and innovator who has the ability to drive an entrepreneurial

culture. As an effective communica- tor, Chambers is described as warm- hearted and straight talking. In this

photo Chambers speaks during a launch ceremony of a green tech- nology partnership Cisco formed

with a university in China.

Let’s begin by briefly defining the terms manager and organization —the place where managers work. Then let’s look at the manager’s job; specifically, what do managers do?

Managers get things done through other people. They make decisions, allocate resources, and direct the activities of others to attain goals. Managers do their work in an organization , which is a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively contin- uous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. By this definition, man- ufacturing and service firms are organizations, and so are schools, hospitals, churches, military units, retail stores, police departments, and local, state, and federal government agencies. The people who oversee the activities of

What Managers Do

2 Describe the manager’s functions, roles, and skills.

manager An individual who achieves goals through other people.

organization A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.

MyManagementLab For an interactive application of this topic, check out this chapter’s simulation activity at www.mymanagementlab.com .

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6 CHAPTER 1 What Is Organizational Behavior?

others and who are responsible for attaining goals in these organizations are managers (sometimes called administrators, especially in not-for-profit organizations).

Management Functions In the early part of the twentieth century, French industrialist Henri Fayol wrote that all managers perform five management functions: planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. 5 Today, we have condensed these to four: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.

Because organizations exist to achieve goals, someone has to define those goals and the means for achieving them; management is that someone. The planning function encompasses defining an organization’s goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals, and developing a comprehen- sive set of plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Evidence indicates this function increases the most as managers move from lower-level to mid-level management. 6

Managers are also responsible for designing an organization’s structure. We call this

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