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Allegory of the cave discussion questions

Chapter 6:

Deviance

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Kerry Ferris & Jill Stein

Lecture Slides

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

1

Getting Warmed Up! Lecture Launcher Questions 1

Sociologists are interested in numerous questions pertaining to deviance. Match the following questions with the theoretical framework that would best explore it.

a. How do certain acts come to be defined as deviant? aa. structural functionalism
b. Why are punishments distributed unequally? bb. symbolic interactionism
c. How does deviance clarify norms and expectations? cc. conflict theory
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

2

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Instructors: Use these questions at the beginning of class to gauge prior student knowledge and comprehension, to elicit discussion, or to emphasize important parts of the upcoming lecture and class session!

Answers: a/bb, b/cc, c/aa

Feedback: This chapter focuses on deviance. A researcher can use a variety of social lenses to study deviance depending on the “layer” or “angle” that is to be researched.

Learning objective: To assess understanding of key theories prior to reading Chapter 6.

Section: Theories of Deviance

2

Getting Warmed Up! Lecture Launcher Questions 2

Select ALL of the following that are acts of deviance:

driving faster than the posted speed limit

yelling at your spouse in a movie theater

grocery shopping in bare feet

texting friends during class

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Instructors: Use these questions at the beginning of class to gauge prior student knowledge and comprehension, to elicit discussion, or to emphasize important parts of the upcoming lecture and class session!

Answer: a, b, c, d

Feedback: All of the above are deviant acts. Each is a behavior that departs from a norm or expectation and generates a negative reaction. It is safe to say that everyone has been deviant as some point in life.

Learning objective: To assess knowledge of key terms prior to reading Chapter 6.

Section: Defining Deviance

3

Getting Warmed Up! Lecture Launcher Questions 3

There are times when deviance is considered positive.

true

false

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

4

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Instructors: Use these questions at the beginning of class to gauge prior student knowledge and comprehension, to elicit discussion, or to emphasize important parts of the upcoming lecture and class session!

Answer: a

Feedback: Certain acts can be a principled act that generates a positive rather than negative

reaction. This often happens in hindsight, once people have had a chance to consider the good that has come from the act.

Learning objective: To assess knowledge of key terms prior to reading Chapter 6.

Section: “Positive” Deviance?

4

Getting Warmed Up! Lecture Launcher Questions 4

_____ is/are the violation of a norm that has been codified into law.

stigma

crime

folkways

mores

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5

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Instructors: Use these questions at the beginning of class to gauge prior student knowledge and comprehension, to elicit discussion, or to emphasize important parts of the upcoming lecture and class session!

Answer: b

Feedback: Crime is a type of deviance. Violating a norm that has been codified into law has serious consequences including arrest and imprisonment.

Learning objective: To assess knowledge of key terms prior to reading Chapter 6.

Section: Crime and Punishment

5

Getting Warmed Up! Lecture Launcher Questions 5

Match the type of stigma (according to Erving Goffman) with the appropriate explanation:

Moral aa. external deformations or mental impairment
b. Physical bb. membership in a discredited or oppressed group
c. Tribal cc. signs of a flawed character
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

6

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Instructors: Use these questions at the beginning of class to gauge prior student knowledge and comprehension, to elicit discussion, or to emphasize important parts of the upcoming lecture and class session!

Answer: a/cc, b/aa, c/bb

Feedback: Stigma is a central concept in the sociology of deviance. Erving Goffman published a book by the same name in 1962. It is still considered relevant and important today. To learn more about the types of stigma mentioned above, read “Stigma and Deviant Identity” in the text.

Learning objective: To assess knowledge of key terms prior to reading Chapter 6.

Section: Stigma and Deviant Identity

6

Getting Warmed Up! Lecture Launcher Questions 6

When a sociologist refers to an act as deviant, she or he is making a _____ judgment, not a _____ judgment.

moral; social

personal; social

social; personal

social; moral

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

7

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Instructors: Use these questions at the beginning of class to gauge prior student knowledge and comprehension, to elicit discussion, or to emphasize important parts of the upcoming lecture and class session!

Answer: d

Feedback: A deviant behavior is one that violates the norms of a particular group. The very same behavior may not be considered deviant among other groups or during a different time period. Defining an act as deviant does not mean that the act is inherently wrong.

Learning objective: To assess knowledge of key terms prior to reading Chapter 6.

Section: Deviance across Cultures

7

Defining Deviance

Deviance is a behavior, trait, or belief that departs from a norm and generates a negative reaction in a particular group.

Defining something as deviant requires us to examine the group norms and how the group reacts to the behavior.

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Deviance isn’t necessarily bad, it’s just different from what the group considers to be normal. For instance, a woman having a size 13 shoe isn’t bad, but it’s definitely different, so it may elicit a reaction from the group that makes up the majority (those with average shoe sizes). When sociologists use the term deviant, they are making a social judgment, not a moral one.

Whether or not something is considered deviance is somewhat contingent on the time period. For example, George Washington and Thomas Jefferson both farmed cannabis during a time in which doing so was not deviant.

Every state had made the use of marijuana illegal by 1937 and marijuana was associated with criminals around the same time.

Farming of hemp and the increasing legality of recreational use of marijuana shows that its deviance is changing once again.

8

Deviance Across Cultures

What is deviant in one culture may not be deviant in another culture!

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

9

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

For discussion, ask your class to discuss whether these images represent examples of norms or deviance in the United States. You can also mention C. Wright Mills to remind students of how norms change over time. Was tattooing a norm in the 1900s? The 1950s? The 2000s? What social factors might influence changing norms?

[Gavriel Jecan/Corbis; Remi Benali/Corbis; Donna McWilliam/AP Photo; Ron Hoskins/NBAE via Getty Images]

9

Theories of Deviance: Functionalism

Functionalism

Deviance serves a function in our society.

According to Émile Durkheim, deviance serves a positive social function by clarifying moral boundaries and promoting social cohesion.

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Without seeing deviant behavior, we would have a hard time classifying what is normal. It isn’t until our group norms are challenged that we come together as a group to defend these norms. For example, the tragic events of September 11, 2001, challenged a norm that many people in the United States took for granted: safety. When the norm was challenged by the terrorist attacks, new policies and procedures were put into place (for instance, airport security) to preserve it.

10

Functionalism: Social Control Theory

Social Control Theory

Theory developed by Travis Hirschi explaining crime

Strong social bonds increase conformity

Strong social bonds decrease deviance

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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Social bonds include family, religious, and civic ties among others.

Suggested internal and external forces influence behavior.

11

Functionalism: Structural Strain Theory

Structural strain theory

Developed by Robert Merton

states that there are goals in our society that people want to achieve, but they cannot always reach these goals. This creates stress (or strain).

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Structural strain theory, sometimes just called strain theory, acknowledges that there are certain goals that society deems acceptable. Ask your students if they can think of what these goals might be. Common responses include: a nice car, a big house, a family, a good job, lots of money, and so on. You may be able to discuss the “American Dream” and the idea that there is a common theme about what Americans should achieve to be called successful. Strain theory then discusses the difficulties that many people have in trying to achieve these goals. The frustration that occurs between knowing what the goals are and not being able to achieve them is the basis of Merton’s strain theory typologies.

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Merton’s Typology of Deviance

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

This table shows the possible combinations of goal and mean acceptance. In the following slides, we’ll expand on the previous definition talk about examples of each of these. Remember, goals are not individual or personal goals, like saving enough money to buy a new mp3 player. They are socially acceptable goals, like “The American Dream”—having a good job, a nice home, a car, money, and so on. Means are ways of making that happen; for instance, means may refer to socially acceptable routes to achieving the aforementioned goals, like going to college, working hard, starting at the bottom of the company ladder but working your way to the top, and so on.

13

Theories of Deviance: Conflict Theory

Conflict Theory

Deviance is a result of social conflict.

In order for the powerful to maintain their power, they marginalize and criminalize the people who threaten their power. Inequality is reproduced in the way deviance is defined.

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

14

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Vagrancy laws are in place because the people in power (representatives of dominant culture) have deemed vagrancy to be deviant. Sociologist William Chambliss looked at how the vagrancy laws have been applied differently over the years to homeless, unemployed, racial minorities, or whoever seemed most threatening at the time. He determined that vagrancy laws actually reproduce inequality in our society.

Richard Quinney blames capitalism and the inevitable exploitation for creating a situation in which deviant and criminal behavior are inescapable for the working class.

14

Theories of Deviance: Symbolic Interactionism

Symbolic Interactionism

Interpersonal relationships and everyday interactions influence meanings and understandings of deviance.

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

15

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Symbolic Interactionism: Differential Association

Differential association:

A symbolic interactionist perspective developed by Edwin Sutherland

States that we learn deviance from interacting with deviant peers

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Edwin Sutherland suggested that the main reason that people become deviant is that they are learning to be that way from the people they associate with. This theory of deviance may remind you of social learning theory, which says that we tend to mimic significant role models in our life.

16

Symbolic Interactionism: Labeling Theory

Labeling theory:

A symbolic interactionist perspective developed by Howard Becker

States that deviance is caused by external judgments (labels) that change a person’s self-concept and the way others respond to him or her

Becker suggests that “labeling” can lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy—a prediction that causes itself to come true.

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

17

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Howard Becker asserted that when people are labeled, that label becomes part of their self-image. So if someone tells you that you are smart, you might start perceiving yourself as smart. Likewise, if someone tells you that you are bad and don’t behave well, that might become part of your image and you might begin to act out as a result of that label.

Labeling a person can lead to that person acting out their label. This is especially true if that label is anchored, or confirmed among many agents of socialization. (So if a child is labeled as bad by a parent, and then by the school, and at afterschool care, and by friends, the label is increasingly likely to become part of that individual’s self-perception.)

17

Symbolic Interactionism: Stereotype Threat and Stereotype Promise

Stereotype Threat: self-fulfilling prophecy in which the fear of performing poorly, and thereby confirming stereotypes about one’s social group, causes students to perform poorly.

Stereotype Promise: self-fulfilling prophecy in which positive stereotypes lead to positive performance outcomes.

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

18

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Stereotype threat and stereotype promise capture how particular labels – positive and negative – can impact our behavior.

Notably, such stereotypes are highly racialized in the U.S.

18

The Stigma of Deviance

Stigma:

Term coined by Ervin Goffman

Describes any physical or social attribute that devalues a person or group’s identity, and which may exclude those who are devalued from normal social interaction

Passing:

Stigmatized individuals may try to pass as if they are part of the mainstream.

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

19

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Stigma can be physical, moral, or tribal. For instance, a physical impairment might stigmatize or devalue a potential employee at a workplace. A moral stigma could include character flaws—for instance, talking too much—which could devalue a person’s input in a group setting. A tribal stigma could be based on membership to a discredited group, which could be a group that a person chooses to belong to, like a club or an organization, or a group that a person is born into, like a race or socioeconomic status. Just like deviance, stigma will depend on the culture and context.

Passing is certainly easier for some individuals than others. For example, morally stigmatized individuals may be able to conceal their beliefs, whereas a physically stigmatized individual may have a more difficult time trying to conceal the impairment that causes the stigmatization. This may also be the case with criminals who commit crimes but then go to work and live their lives as noncriminals.

19

The Study of Crime

Deviance:

If a behavior is considered deviant, it means that it violates the values and norms of a group, not that it is inherently wrong.

However, research on deviance also includes crime.

Crime is the violation of a norm that has been codified into law.

20

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Again, deviance is referring to an act or behavior that is simply different from what the majority group typically does, and thus, generally receives a negative response. In the United States, eating a guinea pig would be considered deviant because most people don’t do that, but in Peru, many people eat guinea pigs as a staple part of their diet. Eating guinea pigs isn’t wrong, but depending on the culture that you’re from, it can definitely be different than the group norm.

The punishment for this kind of deviance could include a state-backed sanction, making this a worse punishment than for a noncriminal type of deviance.

Criminology is the study of crime, criminals, and criminal justice.

Criminologists study crime systematically and scientifically to help us better understand crime.

Crime does not occur in a vacuum, but, rather, it is intersectional. This means that a number of variables come together such as class, age, gender, and race to influence crime rates.

[Warner Bros/DC COMICS/The Kobal Collection/Art Resource, NY]

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Crime and Demographics: Hate Crimes

Hate Crimes

Occurs when criminals specifically target victims based on demographic characteristics

Charges typically increase the punishment associated with another crime such as assault

Official statistics likely underreport the true number of hate crimes

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Demographic characteristics include race, national origin, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or disability.

21

Types of Punishments

In the United States, serious crimes are punished by imprisonment.

In other cultures, types of punishments can include:

Shunning

Banishment

Corporal punishment

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Many different countries, cultures, or regions may not have the resources to incarcerate criminals, so they find other means of punishment, like those listed in this slide.

22

Punishments and Time

Acts deemed criminal and their punishments change over time.

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

During the 1920s and 1930s, alcohol was illegal in the United States, but it is legal in most areas in the United States now. In contrast, heroin used to be widely available in the United States. It was sold by Bayer until 1910, and the U.S. government even taxed it until it was eventually banned in 1924.

For discussion, you can ask your class if they can think of other laws, crimes, or punishments that are different today than they used to be.

[http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Prohibition.jpg]

[http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bayer_Heroin_bottle.jpg]

23

The Criminal Justice System

Deterrence: prevent crime by threatening harsh penalties

Retribution: retaliate or take revenge for a crime that’s been committed

Incapacitation: remove criminals from society by imprisoning them

Rehabilitation: reform criminals so that they may reenter society

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

These are the four main philosophies of punishment. Each offers a different approach to punishment. Rehabilitation, for instance, suggests that we should include education and training in prisons so that prisoners will be able to contribute to society upon their release.

In practice, these philosophies often overlap.

Deterrence: if you are in a hurry to class and you start to exceed the speed limit, do you ever slow down because you think, “I don’t want to get a speeding ticket”? If so, the potential penalty has deterred you from committing the crime.

Retribution: have you ever heard the saying “an eye for an eye”? That’s the premise behind retribution—you’ve committed a crime, therefore, society has the right to retaliate in a certain way.

Incapacitation may depend on the severity of the crime committed. If our society imprisoned every person who ever jaywalked, there would be few people left out in society. Then again, if the penalty for jaywalking was imprisonment, maybe fewer people would do it. That’s part of the logic behind creating sentences for crimes.

Rehabilitation has different degrees of success or failure depending on the crime committed, however, even though rehabilitation is usually less expensive than incarceration, we tend to see more sentences of incarceration than rehabilitation. Why do you think this is? Are there certain crimes that you think should receive more rehabilitation that incarceration? What about drug use or possession?

A current trend in United States corrections is to transition from government run prisons to private prisons. Doing so, makes incarceration a for-profit endeavor that may undermine the rehabilitation of inmates.

24

Reconsidering Deviance?

Positive deviance is defined as an act that is outside of the norm, but may actually be heroic rather than negative.

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

25

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Can your class think of examples of positive deviance? Examples could be Rosa Parks refusing to give up her seat on the bus when asked; or even a student in class being the one to raise his or her hand and say that a test seemed unfair. If no one else in the class spoke up, this student’s action might be deviant, but it could also shed light on an issue that needed to be addressed.

25

1. Deviance— Concept Quiz

According to structural strain theory, which group of people would be most likely to renounce the culture’s goals and means entirely and live outside of conventional norms altogether?

deviants

innovators

ritualists

retreatists

rebels

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Ans: D

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2. Deviance— Concept Quiz

A professional gambler who makes $250,000 per year would likely be considered what, according to structural strain theory?

a deviant

an innovator

a ritualist

a retreatist

a rebel

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

27

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Ans: B

27

3. Deviance— Concept Quiz

Eddie’s family just moved to a new city. He finds new friends, but they’re always “up to something” according to Eddie’s mom. For instance, all of the kids dyed their hair green, and so did Eddie. Then, all of the kids got their noses pierced, and so did Eddie. Which sociologist would be interested in studying this situation?

Robert Merton

Edwin Sutherland

Howard Becker

Erving Goffman

Jack Katz

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Ans: B

28

4. Deviance— Concept Quiz

Body modification used to be used as a way to mark someone in society with shame. Now, however, body modification is now generally considered a voluntary mark of body decoration. What does this tell us about society?

Body modification has always been artistic, people just used to interpret it the wrong way.

Acts considered “deviant” changes over time.

Subcultures have always been around; they just don’t have to hide anymore.

All of the above are true.

None of the above is true.

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Ans: B

29

5. Deviance— Concept Quiz

According to Merton’s structural strain theory, an individual who deals drugs in order to get rich would be called a/an

conformist.

innovator.

ritualist.

retreatist.

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Ans: B

30

6. Deviance— Concept Quiz

The case of a student who was continually told that he was stupid and would never amount to anything and who eventually drops out of school is an example of

tertiary deviation.

anomie.

self-fulfilling prophecy.

sanctions.

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Ans: C

31

7. Deviance— Concept Quiz

The philosophy of punishment that justifies punishment on the grounds that it will prevent future crime is called:

prevention.

retribution.

deterrence.

rehabilitation.

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Ans: C

32

8. Deviance— Concept Quiz

The philosophy of punishment that justifies punishment on the grounds that those who break laws deserve to be punished is called:

prevention.

retribution.

deterrence.

rehabilitation.

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

33

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Ans: B

33

1. Chapter 6: Participation Questions

Do you have any tattoos?

yes

no

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

34

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

These questions can be used with “clickers,” cell phones, or other audience response systems to increase participation in your classes. They can also be used to encourage discussion without technological input.

34

2. Chapter 6: Participation Questions

Did your parents ever forbid you from seeing a particular friend because they thought he or she was a “bad influence” on you?

yes

no

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

35

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

These questions can be used with “clickers,” cell phones, or other audience response systems to increase participation in your classes. They can also be used to encourage discussion without technological input.

35

3. Chapter 6: Participation Questions

Have you ever been bullied (teased, harassed, threatened, or humiliated) in a face-to-face situation?

yes

no

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

36

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

These questions can be used with “clickers,” cell phones, or other audience response systems to increase participation in your classes. They can also be used to encourage discussion without technological input.

36

4. Chapter 6: Participation Questions

Have you ever been cyberbullied (teased, harassed, threatened or humiliated online, via text message or through email)?

yes

no

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

37

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

These questions can be used with “clickers,” cell phones, or other audience response systems to increase participation in your classes. They can also be used to encourage discussion without technological input.

37

5. Chapter 6: Participation Questions

Is it OK to break a law or rule if you feel like you’re doing the right thing? (For instance, you speed through a red light because you are rushing a sick friend to the hospital.)

yes

no

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

38

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

These questions can be used with “clickers,” cell phones, or other audience response systems to increase participation in your classes. They can also be used to encourage discussion without technological input.

38

Chapter 6: Data Workshop Activity

Refer to the Data Workshop on page 169-170 to prepare for this activity.

You’re going to be watching an episode from a television show. As a sociologist studying our society’s interest in deviance, you should look for these themes as you watch. Respond to the questions on page 169-170. Be prepared to share your findings with the class!

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Directions for Instructors:

-Refresh students’ memories about data collection from Chapter 2. This activity exemplifies the terms existing sources, content analysis, quantitative vs. qualitative research, representativeness. You may find it helpful to remind the students of the meaning of these terms.

-Refer students to page 166. Ask them to read the data workshop activity.

-There are several ways to complete this activity. Ideally, it would be great to split students into groups and have each group watch a 30-minute episode of a show from a different television series. If this is not possible, the whole class can watch an episode of a show selected by the instructor.

-Ask students to review the content and discuss their findings in a small group.

-Once students have discussed findings in the smaller group, bring their comments to a full group discussion.

-Ask questions about what they saw and how they came to these conclusions. To deepen the discussion, ask students whether they feel they observed a representative sample. Ask them to identify whether their data collection included quantitative methods, qualitative methods, or both.

39

This concludes the Lecture PowerPoint presentation for Chapter 6

40

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

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